Pure and Applied Geophysics

, Volume 171, Issue 10, pp 2747–2766 | Cite as

Source Scaling of Inland Crustal Earthquake Sequences in Japan Using the S-Wave Coda Spectral Ratio Method

  • Kazuhiro Somei
  • Kimiyuki Asano
  • Tomotaka Iwata
  • Ken Miyakoshi


We estimate corner frequencies and stress drops for 298 events ranging from Mw 3.2–7.0 in 17 inland crustal earthquake sequences in Japan to investigate the source scaling and variation in stress drops. We obtain the source spectral ratio from observed records by the S-wave coda spectral ratio method. The advantage of using the S-wave coda is in obtaining much more stable source spectral ratios than using direct S-waves. We carefully examine the common shape of the decay of coda envelopes between event pair records. The corner frequency and stress drop are estimated by modeling the observed source spectral ratio with the omega-square source spectral model. We investigate the dependences of stress drops on some tectonic effects such as regionality, focal mechanism, and source depth. The principal findings are as follows: (1) a break in self-similar source scaling is found in our dataset. Events larger than Mw 4.5 show larger stress drops than those of smaller events. (2) Stress drops of aftershocks are mostly smaller than those of mainshocks in each sequence. (3) There are no systematic differences between stress drops of events occurring inside and outside the Niigata-Kobe Tectonic Zone in Japan. (4) Clear dependence of the faulting type on stress drops cannot be seen. (5) Stress drops of aftershocks depend on their source depth. (6) The crack size obtained from the corner frequency corresponds to the total rupture area of heterogeneous slip models for large events.


Source scaling corner frequency stress drop inland crustal earthquake sequences S-wave coda spectral ratio method 


  1. Aki, K. (1967), Scaling Law of Seismic Spectrum, J. Geophys. Res. 72(4), 1217–1231, doi:10.1029/JZ072i004p01217.Google Scholar
  2. Aki, K., and Chouet, B. (1975), Origin of Coda Waves: Source, Attenuation, and Scattering Effects, J. Geophys. Res. 80, 3322–3342.Google Scholar
  3. Allmann, B.P., and Shearer, P.M. (2009), Global Variations of Stress Drop for Moderate to Large Earthquakes, J. Geophys. Res. 114, B01310, doi:10.1029/2008JB005821.
  4. Aoi, S., Obara, K., Hori, S., Kasahara, K., and Okada, Y. (2000), New Japanese Uphole/Downhole Strong-Motion Observation Network: KiK-net, Seismol. Res. Lett. 72, 239.Google Scholar
  5. Aoi, S., Sekiguchi, H., Morikawa, N., and Kunugi, T. (2008), Source Process of the 2007 Niigata-ken Chuetsu-oki Earthquake Derived from Near-Fault Strong Motion Data, Earth Planets Space 60, 1131–1135.Google Scholar
  6. Asano, K., and Iwata, T. (2009), Source Rupture Process of the 2004 Chuetsu, Mid-Niigata Prefecture, Japan, Earthquake Inferred from Waveform Inversion with Dense Strong-Motion Data, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am. 99, 123–140.Google Scholar
  7. Asano, K., and Iwata, T. (2006), Source Process and Near-Source Ground Motions of the 2005 West Off Fukuoka Prefecture Earthquake, Earth Planets Space 58, 93–98.Google Scholar
  8. Asano, K., and Iwata, T. (2011a), Characterization of Stress Drops on Asperities Estimated from the Heterogeneous Kinematic Slip Model for Strong Motion Prediction for Inland Crustal Earthquakes in Japan, Pure Appl. Geophys. 168, 105–116.Google Scholar
  9. Asano, K., and Iwata, T. (2011b), Source-Rupture Process of the 2007 Noto Hanto, Japan, Earthquake Estimated by the Joint Inversion of Strong Motion and GPS Data, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am. 101, 2467–2480.Google Scholar
  10. Baltay, A., Ide, S., Prieto, G., and Beroza, G.C. (2011), Variability in Earthquake Stress Drop and Apparent Stress, Geophys. Res. Lett. 38, L06303, doi:10.1029/2011GL046698.
  11. Brune, J.N. (1970), Tectonic Stress and Spectra of Seismic Shear Waves from Earthquakes, J. Geophys. Res. 75, 4997–5009.Google Scholar
  12. Brune, J.N. (1971), Tectonic Stress and Seismic Shear Waves from Earthquakes, Correction, J. Geophys. Res. 76, 5002.Google Scholar
  13. Cocco, M., and Rovelli, A. (1989), Evidence for the Variation of Stress Drop Between Normal and Thrust Faulting Earthquakes in Italy, J. Geophys. Res. 94, 9399–9416.Google Scholar
  14. Cotton, F., Archuleta, R., and Causse, M. (2013), What is Sigma of the Stress Drop? Seismol. Res. Lett. 84, 42–48, doi:10.1785/0220120087.
  15. Ekström, G., Dziewonski, A.M., Maternovskaya, N.N., and Nettles, M. (2005), Global Seismicity of 2003: Centroid-Moment Tensor Solutions for 1087 Earthquakes, Phys. Earth Planet. Inter. 148, 327–351.Google Scholar
  16. Eshelby, J. (1957), The Determination of the Elastic Field of an Ellipsoidal Inclusion, and Related Problems, Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 241, 376–396.Google Scholar
  17. Fukuyama, E., Ellsworth, W.L., Waldhauser, F., and Kubo, A. (2003), Detailed Fault Structure of the 2000 Western Tottori, Japan, Earthquake Sequence, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am. 93, 1468–1478.Google Scholar
  18. Fukuyama, E., Ishida, M., Dreger, D.S., and Kawai, H. (1998), Automated Seismic Moment Tensor Determination Using On-Line Broadband Seismic Waveforms, Zisin 2 (J. Seismol. Soc. Jpn.) 51, 149–156 (in Japanese with English abstract).Google Scholar
  19. Hartzell, S. (1978), Earthquake Aftershocks as Green’s Functions, Geophys. Res. Lett. 5, 1–14.Google Scholar
  20. Hikima, K. (2011), Rupture Process of the April 11, 2011 Fukushima Hamadori Earthquake (Mj7.0) Inferred from Strong Motion Data, Zisin 2 (J. Seismol. Soc. Jpn.) 64, 243–256 (in Japanese with English abstract).Google Scholar
  21. Hikima, K., and Koketsu, K. (2004), Source Processes of the Foreshock, Mainshock and Largest Aftershock in the 2003 Miyagi-ken Hokubu, Japan, Earthquake Sequence, Earth Planets Space 56, 87–93, 2004.Google Scholar
  22. Hough, S. (1997), Empirical Green’s Function Analysis: Taking the Next Step, J. Geophys. Res. 102, 5369–5380.Google Scholar
  23. Ide, S., Beroza, G.C., Prejean, S.G., and Ellsworth, W.L. (2003), Apparent Break in Earthquake Scaling Due to Path and Site Effects in Deep Borehole Recordings, J. Geophys. Res. 108(B5), 2271, doi:10.1029/2001JB001617.
  24. Iio, Y. (1986), Scaling Relation Between Earthquake Size and Duration of Faulting for Shallow Earthquakes in Seismic Moment Between 1010 and 1025 dyne.cm, J. Phys. Earth 34, 127–169.Google Scholar
  25. Imanishi, K., Takeo, M., Ellsworth, W.L., Ito, H., Matsuzawa, T., Kuwahara, Y., Iio, Y., Horiuchi, S., and Ohmi, S. (2004), Source Parameters and Rupture Velocity of Microearthquakes in Western Nagano, Japan, Determined using Stopping Phases, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am. 94, 1762–1780.Google Scholar
  26. Iwata, T., and Irikura, K. (1988), Source Parameters of the 1983 Japan Sea Earthquake Sequence, J. Phys. Earth 36, 155–184.Google Scholar
  27. Iwata, T., and Sekiguchi, H. (2002), Rupture Process and Near-Source Ground Motions of the 2000 Tottoriken-Seibu Earthquake, Proc. 11th Japan Symp. Earthq. Eng. 121–125 (in Japanese with English abstract).Google Scholar
  28. Izutani, Y. (2005), Radiated Energy from the Mid Niigata, Japan, Earthquake of October 23, 2004, and its Aftershocks, Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, L21313, doi:10.1029/2005GL024116.
  29. Izutani, Y., and Kanamori, H. (2001), Scale-Dependence of Seismic Energy-to-Moment Ratio for Strike-Slip Earthquakes in Japan, Geophys. Res. Lett. 28(20), 4007–4010, doi:10.1029/2001GL013402.Google Scholar
  30. Japan Meteorological Agency (2011), http://www.seisvol.kishou.go.jp/eq/sourceprocess/.
  31. Jones, L.E., and Helmberger, D.V. (1996), Seismicity and Stress-Drop in the Eastern Transverse Ranges, Southern California, Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 233–236.Google Scholar
  32. Jost, M.L., Büßelberg, T., Jost, Ö., and Harjes, H.-P. (1998), Source Parameters of Injection-Induced Microearthquakes at 9 km Depth at the KTB Deep Drilling Site, Germany, Bull. Seism. Soc. Am. 88, 815–832.Google Scholar
  33. Kagawa, T., Iemura, H., Irikura, K., and Toki, K. (2004), Strong Ground Motion Observation by the Committee of Earthquake Observation and Research in the Kansai Area (CEORKA), J. Japan Assoc. Earthq. Eng. 4(3):128–133.Google Scholar
  34. Kanamori, H., and Anderson, D.L. (1975), Theoretical Basis of Some Empirical Relations in Seismology, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am. 65, 1073–1095.Google Scholar
  35. Katao, H., Maeda, N., Hiramatsu, Y., Iio, Y., and Nakao, S. (1997), Detailed Mapping of Focal Mechanisms in/around the Hyogo-ken Nanbu Earthquake Rupture Zone, J. Phys. Earth 45, 105–119.Google Scholar
  36. Kato, A., Sakai, S., Hirata, N., Kurashimo, E., Iidaka, T., Iwasaki, T., and Kanazawa, T. (2006), Imaging the Seismic Structure and Stress Field in the Source Region of the 2004 Mid-Niigata Prefecture Earthquake: Structural Zones of Weakness and Seismogenic Stress Concentration by Ductile Flow, J. Geophys. Res. 111, B08308, doi:10.1029/2005JB004016.
  37. Kato, A., Sakai, S., Iidaka, T., Iwasaki, T., Kurashimo, E., Igarashi, T., Hirata, N., Kanazawa, T., and Group for the Aftershock Observations of the 2007 Noto Hanto Earthquake (2008), Three-Dimensional Velocity Structure in the Source Region of the Noto Hanto Earthquake in 2007 Imaged by a Dense Seismic Observation, Earth Planets Space 60, 105–110.Google Scholar
  38. Lindley, G.T. (1994), Source Parameters of the 23 April 1992 Joshua Tree, California, Earthquake, Its largest Foreshock, and Aftershocks, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am. 84, 1051–1057.Google Scholar
  39. Kawase, H., and Matsuo, H. (2004), Amplification Characteristics of K-NET, KiK-net, and JMA Shindokei Network Sites Based on the Spectral Inversion Technique, Proc. 13th World Conf. Earthq. Eng. paper no. 454.Google Scholar
  40. Kinoshita, S. (1998), Kyoshin-net (K-NET), Seismol. Res. Lett. 69, 309–332.Google Scholar
  41. Malagnini, L., and Mayeda, K. (2008), High-Stress Strike-Slip Faults in the Apennines: An Example from the 2002 San Giuliano Earthquakes (Southern Italy), Geophys. Res. Lett. 35, L12302, doi:10.1029/2008GL034024.
  42. Matsubara, M., Obara, K., and Kasahara, K. (2008), Three-Dimensional P-and S-Wave Velocity Structures Beneath the Japan Islands Obtained by High-Density Seismic Stations by Seismic Tomography, Tectonophysics 454, 86–103, doi:10.1016/j.tecto.2008.04.016.
  43. Matsunami, K., and Hachiri, T. (1995), Seismic Observations for Strong Ground Motions around Lake Biwa, Annuals Disas. Prev. Res. Inst., Kyoto Univ. 38B-1, 1–12 (in Japanese with English abstract).Google Scholar
  44. Mayeda, K., Malagnini, L., and Walter, W.R. (2007), A New Spectral Ratio Method Using Narrow Band Coda Envelopes: Evidence for Non-Self-Similarity in the Hector Mine Sequence, Geophys. Res. Lett. 34, L11303, doi:10.1029/2007GL030041.
  45. Mayeda, K., and Malagnini, L. (2009), Apparent Stress and Corner Frequency Variations in the 1999 Taiwan (Chi–Chi) Sequence: Evidence for a Step-Wise Increase at Mw-5.5, Geophys. Res. Lett. 36, L10308, doi:10.1029/2009GL037421.
  46. Mayeda, K., and Walter, W.R. (1996), Moment, Energy, Stress Drop, and Source Spectra of Western United States Earthquakes from Regional Coda Envelopes, J. Geophys. Res. 101(B5), 11,195-11,208, doi:10.1029/96JB00112.
  47. McGarr, A. (1999), On Relating Apparent Stress to the Stress Causing Earthquake Fault Slip, J. Geophys. Res. 104(B2), 3003–3011, doi:10.1029/1998JB900083.
  48. Miyake, H., Iwata, T., and Irikura, K. (2001), Estimation of Rupture Propagation Direction and Strong Motion Generation Area from Azimuth and Distance Dependence of Source Amplitude Spectra, Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 2727–2730.Google Scholar
  49. Miyake, H., Iwata, T., and Irikura, K. (2003), Source Characterization for Broadband Ground-Motion Simulation: Kinematic Heterogeneous Source Model and Strong Motion Generation Area, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am. 93, 2531–2545.Google Scholar
  50. Miyakoshi, K., Kurahashi, S., and Irikura, K. (2008), Review of Source Models for the 2007 Niigata ken Chuetsu Oki Earthquake, Abstr. Seismol. Soc. Jpn. Fall Meet. C11-01, 2008 (in Japanese).Google Scholar
  51. Miyakoshi, K., Petukhin, A., and Kagawa, T. (2004), Source Modeling of Inland Earthquakes for the Intermediate Period Range Case study of 1997 Kagoshima Ken Hokuseibu (March) and 1997 Yamaguchi ken Hokubu earthquakes, Abstr. Seismol. Soc. Jpn. Fall Meet. P-065, 2004 (in Japanese).Google Scholar
  52. Mori, J., Abercrombie, R.E., and Kanamori, H. (2003), Stress Drops and Radiated Energies of Aftershocks of the 1994 Northridge, California, Earthquake, J. Geophys. Res. 108(B11), 2545, doi:10.1029/2001JB000474.
  53. Mueller, C. (1985), Source Pulse Enhancement by Deconvolution of an Empirical Green’s Function, Geophys. Res. Lett. 12, 33–36.Google Scholar
  54. Nakagawa, H. (1997), Source Parameters of the 1995 Hyogo-ken Nanbu Earthquake Sequences, M. Thesis, Kyoto University.Google Scholar
  55. Okamura, Y. (2010), Relationships between Geological Structure and Earthquake Source Faults along the Eastern Margin of the Japan Sea, J. Geol. Soc. Japan, 116(11), 582–591 (In Japanese with English abstract).Google Scholar
  56. Oth, A., Bindi, D., Parolai, S., and Di Giacomo, D. (2010), Earthquake Scaling Characteristics and the Scale-(in)dependence of Seismic Energy-to-Moment Ratio: Insights from KiK-net Data in Japan. Geophys. Res. Lett. 37, L19304, doi:10.1029/2010GL044572.
  57. Oth, A., Bindi, D., Parolai, S., and Di Giacomo, D. (2011), Spectral Analysis of K-NET and KiK-net Data in Japan, Part II: On Attenuation Characteristics, Source Spectra, and Site Response of Borehole and Surface Stations, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am. 101(2), 667–687.Google Scholar
  58. Prejean, S.G., and Ellsworth, W.L. (2001), Observations of Earthquake Source Parameters and Attenuation at 2 km Depth in the Long Valley Caldera, Eastern California, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am., 91, 165–177.Google Scholar
  59. Prieto, G.A., Shearer, P.M., Vernon, F.L., and Kilb, D. (2004), Earthquake Source Scaling and Self-Similarity Estimation from Stacking P and S Spectra, J. Geophys. Res., 109, B08310, doi:10.1029/2004JB003084.
  60. Rautian, T.G., and Khalturin, V.I. (1978), The Use of the Coda for Determination of the Earthquake Source Spectrum, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am. 68(4), 923–948.Google Scholar
  61. Sagiya, T., Miyazaki, S., and Tada, T. (2000), Continuous GPS Array and Present-Day Crustal Deformation of Japan, Pure Appl. Geophys. 157, 2302–2232.Google Scholar
  62. Satoh, T. (2006), Influence of Fault Mechanism, Depth, and Region on Stress Drops of Small and Moderate Earthquakes in Japan, Struct. Eng./Earthq. Eng., Jpn. Soc. Civil Eng. 23-1, 125–134.Google Scholar
  63. Scholz, C.H., The Mechanics of Earthquakes and Faulting (Cambridge University Press, New York, 1990).Google Scholar
  64. Sekiguchi, H., Iwata, T., and Irikura, K. (2002), Source Inversion for Estimating Continuous Slip Distribution on the Fault – Introduction of Green’s Functions Convolved with a Correction Function to give Moving Dislocation Effects in Subfaults, Geophys. J. Int. 150, 377–391.Google Scholar
  65. Shearer, P., Prieto, G., and Hauksson, E. (2006), Comprehensive Analysis of Earthquake Source Spectra in Southern California, J. Geophys. Res. 111, B06303, doi:10.1029/2005JB003979.
  66. Somerville, P., Irikura, K., Graves, G., Sawada, S., Wald, D., Abrahamson, N., Iwasaki, Y., Kagawa, T., Smith, N., and Kowada, A. (1999), Characterizing Crustal Earthquake Slip Models for the Prediction of Strong Ground Motion. Seism. Res. Lett. 70, 59–80.Google Scholar
  67. Tajima, R., and Tajima, F. (2007), Seismic Scaling Relations and Aftershock Activity from the Sequences of the 2004 Mid Niigata and the 2005 West Off Fukuoka Earthquakes (Mw 6.6) in Japan, J. Geophys. Res. 112, B10302, doi:10.1029/2007JB004941.
  68. Tajima, R., and Tajima, F. (2008), Seismic Scaling Relation of the 2007 Off Mid Niigata, Japan, Earthquake (M w 6.6) Sequence in Comparison with Two Other Earthquake (M w 6.6) Sequences, Earth Planets Space 60, 1137–1141.Google Scholar
  69. Takahashi, T., Sato, H., Ohtake, M., and Obara, K. (2005), Scale Dependence of Apparent Stress for Earthquakes along the Subducting Pacific Plate in Northeastern Honshu, Japan, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am., 95, 1334–1345.Google Scholar
  70. Takeda, T. (2011), The Earthquake in the Vicinity of Nagano and Niigata Prefecture Boundary on Mar. 12, 2011, Report of the Coordinating Committee for Earthquake Prediction, Japan 86, 7–1 (in Japanese).Google Scholar
  71. Takeda, T. (2011), The Earthquake in the East Area of Shizuoka Prefecture on Mar. 15, 2011, Report of the Coordinating Committee for Earthquake Prediction, Japan 86, 6–3 (in Japanese).Google Scholar
  72. Uehira, K., Yamada, T., Shinohara, M., Nakahigashi, K., Miyamachi, H., Iio, Y., Okada, T., Takahashi, H., Matsuwo, N., Uchida, K., Kanazawa, T., and Shimizu, H. (2006), Precise Aftershock Distribution of the 2005 West Off Fukuoka Prefecture Earthquake (Mj = 7.0) using a Dense Onshore and Offshore Seismic Network, Earth Planets Space 58, 1605–1610.Google Scholar
  73. Wessel, P., and Smith, W.H.F. (1998), New, Improved Version of Generic Mapping Tools Released, Eos Trans. AGU 79, 579.Google Scholar
  74. Yoo S.H., Rhie, J., Choi, H., and Mayeda, K. (2010), Evidence for Non-Self-Similarity and Transitional Increment of Scaled Energy in the 2005 West Off Fukuoka Seismic Sequence, J. Geophys. Res. 115, B08308, doi:10.1029/2009JB007169.

Copyright information

© Springer Basel 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kazuhiro Somei
    • 1
  • Kimiyuki Asano
    • 2
  • Tomotaka Iwata
    • 2
  • Ken Miyakoshi
    • 1
  1. 1.Geo-Research InstituteOsakaJapan
  2. 2.Disaster Prevention Research InstituteKyoto UniversityKyotoJapan

Personalised recommendations