Comparison of the 2010 Chile and 2011 Japan Tsunamis in the Far Field
In this study we analyze water level data from coastal tide gauges and deep-ocean tsunameters to explore the far-field characteristics of two major trans-Pacific tsunamis, the 2010 Chile and the 2011 Japan (Tohoku-oki) events. We focused our attention on data recorded in California (14 stations) and New Zealand (31 stations) as well as on tsunameters situated along the tsunami path and proximal to the study sites. Our analysis considers statistical analyses of the time series to determine arrival times of the tsunami as well as the timing of the largest waves and the highest absolute sea levels. Fourier and wavelet analysis were used to describe the spectral content of the tsunami signal. These characteristics were then compared between the two events to highlight similarities and differences between the signals as a function of the receiving environment and the tsunami source. This study provides a comprehensive analysis of far-field tsunami characteristics in the Pacific Ocean, which has not experienced a major tsunami in nearly 50 years. As such, it systematically describes the tsunami response characteristics of modern maritime infrastructure in New Zealand and California and will be of value for future tsunami hazard assessments in both countries.
KeywordsTsunami time-series analysis tide gauge long waves spectral analysis wavelet analysis ports harbor resonance New Zealand California
- Abraham, E. (1997), Seiche modes of Wellington Harbour, New Zealand, N. Z. J. Mar. Fresh. Res., 31, 191-200.Google Scholar
- Borrero, J., Bell, R., Csato, C., DeLange, W., Greer, D., Goring, D., Pickett, V. and Power, W. (2012), Observations, effects and real time assessment of the March 11, 2011 Tohoku-oki Tsunami in New Zealand, Pure Appl. Geophys., doi:10.1007/s00024-012-0492-6.
- Delouis, B., Nocquet, J.-M., and Vallée, M. (2010), Slip distribution of the February 27, 2010 M w = 8.8 Maule earthquake, central Chile, from static and high-rate GPS, InSAR, and broadband teleseismic data, Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L17305, 7 PP., 2010 doi:10.1029/2010GL043899
- Emery, W. J., and Thomson, R. E., Data analysis methods in physical oceanography, second and revised edition, (Elsevier, New York, 2003).Google Scholar
- Fritz, H., Petroff, C., Catalán, P., Cienfuegos, R., Winckler, P., Kalligeris, N., Weiss, R., Barrientos, S., Meneses, G., Valderas-Bermejo, C., Ebeling, C., Papadopoulos, A., Contreras, M., Almar, R., Dominguez, J., and Synolakis, C. (2011), Field survey of the 27 February 2010 Chile tsunami, Pure Appl. Geophys., 168, 1989-2010.Google Scholar
- Fujii, Y., and Satake, K. (2012), Slip distribution and seismic moment of the 2010 and 1960 Chilean earthquakes inferred from tsunami waveforms and coastal geodetic data, Pure Appl. Geophys., in press.Google Scholar
- Gilmour, A.E. (1990), Response of Wellington Harbour to the tsunamis of 1960 and 1964, N. Z. J. Mar. Fresh. Res., 24:229-231.Google Scholar
- González, F., Satake, K., Boss, E., and Mofjeld, H. (1995), Edge wave and non-trapped modes of the 25 April 1992 Cape Mendocino tsunami, Pure Appl. Geophys., 144, 409-426.Google Scholar
- Goring, D. (2002), Response of New Zealand waters to the Peru tsunami of 23 June 2001, N. Z. J. Mar. Fresh. Res., 36:225-232.Google Scholar
- Goring, D. (2011), Honshu Tsunami 12-March-2011, Report to the Lyttelton Port Company, 17 pp.Google Scholar
- Goring, D. (unpublished), Long Wave Fourier Spectra at GeoNet Sites, unpublished internet URL: http://www.tideman.co.nz/GeoNet/LWSpectra.html. Accessed 31 July 2012
- Goring, D. and Henry, R., (1998), Short period (1-4 h), sea level fluctuations on the Canterbury coast, New Zealand, N. Z. J. Mar. Fresh. Res., 32, 119-134.Google Scholar
- Heath, R.A. (1976), The response of several New Zealand harbours to the 1960 Chilean tsunami, in: Tsunami research symposium 1974. Bull. R. Soc. N. Z. 15, 71-82.Google Scholar
- Horillo, J., Knight, W., and Kowalik, Z. (2008), Kuril Islands tsunami of November 2006: 2. Impact at Crescent City by local enhancement, J. Geophys. Res., 113, C01021, doi:10.1029/2007JC004404.
- Kowalik, Z., Horillo, J., Knight, W., and Logan, T. (2008), Kuril Islands tsunami of November 2006: 1. Impact at Crescent City by distant scattering, J. Geophys. Res. 113, C01020, doi:10.1029/2007JC004402.
- Miller, G., Munk, W., and Snodgrass, F. (1962), Long-period waves over California’s continental borderland Part 2. Tsunamis, J. Mar. Res., 20, 3-30.Google Scholar
- Mori, N., Takahashi, T., Yasuda, T., and Yanagisawa, H. (2011), Survey of 2011 Tohoku earthquake tsunami inundation and run-up, Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, L00G14, doi:10.1029/2011GL049210.
- Ozawa, S., Nishimura, T., Hisashi S., Kobayashi, T., Tobita, M., and Tetsuro Imakiire, T. (2011), Coseismic and postseismic slip of the 2011 magnitude-9 Tohoku-Oki earthquake, Nature, 475, 373–376.Google Scholar
- Rabinovich, A., and Thomson, R. (2007), The 26 December 2004 Sumatra Tsunami: Analysis of Tide Gauge Data from the World Ocean Part 1. Indian Ocean and South Africa, in: Tsunami and Its Hazards in the Indian and Pacific Oceans Pure Appl. Geophys., doi:10.1007/978-3-7643-8364-0_2
- Raichlen, F. (1970), Tsunamis, Some Laboratory and Field Observations, Proc. of the 12th Intl. Conf. on Coast. Eng., 2103 – 2122.Google Scholar
- Torrence, C., and Compo, G. (1998), A Practical Guide to Wavelet Analysis, Bull. Am. Met. Soc., 79, 61-78.Google Scholar
- Tolkova, E., and Power W. (2011), Obtaining natural oscillatory modes of bays and harbors via Empirical Orthogonal Function analysis of tsunami wave fields, Ocean Dynam. 61:731-751, doi: 10.1007/s10236-011-0388-5.