Pure and Applied Geophysics

, Volume 170, Issue 3, pp 337–351 | Cite as

Lg Wave Attenuation in the Isparta Angle and Anatolian Plateau (Turkey)

  • Sakir Sahin
  • Xueyang Bao
  • Niyazi Turkelli
  • Eric Sandvol
  • Ugur Teoman
  • Metin Kahraman


We estimate Lg wave attenuation using local and regional seismic phases in the Isparta Angle and the Anatolian Plateau (Turkey). The Isparta Angle (IA) is a tectonically active zone forming the boundary between the African Plate and the Anatolian Plateau, and is currently undergoing N–S extensional deformation. The Anatolian Plateau contains many intra-continental faults including the North Anatolian Fault Zone and the East Anatolian Fault Zone as well as the Menderes Massif. A large waveform data set was compiled from a variety of local and regional seismic networks including 121 digital seismic stations (broad-band and short period) between 1999 and 2008 spanning the IA, the Anatolian Plateau and Azerbaijan. The data set was used to determine the nature of Lg wave propagation and characterize the nature of seismic attenuation within the crust of these regions. Lg waveforms were used to calculate the frequency-dependent Lg-Q o and Lg-\( \eta \). A wide range of Lg-Q o values was obtained between ~52 ± 6 and 524 ± 227. Low Lg-Q o values (~90–155) are calculated towards the north of IA, Iskenderun Gulf and its vicinity, Bingöl-Karlıova, Izmit and its vicinity. Lg-Q o values are especially low (<90) along the Menderes Massif and the Aksehir-Simav Fault Zones. This may be due to intrinsic attenuation of Lg associated with the partially molten crust and young volcanism. The high Lg-Q o values (~350) are probably caused by the crust not being subject to large amounts of extensional deformation like the Antalya Gulf and apparently being thick enough to support Lg propagation. Relatively higher values along the border of this subduction zone and plate boundary might be related to the Taurus Mountain belts and Bitlis-Zagros Suture Zone. The lateral frequency dependency Lg-\( \eta \) is also consistent with high tectonic activity in this region.


Anatolian Plateau Isparta Angle Lg attenuation wave propagation tectonics 



This research was supported by the University of Missouri as the project called Lithospheric Dynamics of the Isparta Angle: A study of the seismic structure of Southwestern Turkey. We thank KOERI-NEMC, KOERI-GEOPH, SDU-EGRC and DAD/ERD for providing data sets. We also thank to SDU for their logistic support and MU Geology Department for Seismological Laboratory, and additionally we thank TUBITAK for the scholarship support.


  1. Al-Damegh, K., Sandvol, E., Al-Lazki, A., and Barazangi, M. (2004), Reginal seismic wave propagation (Lg and Sn) and Pn attenuation in the Arabian Plate and surrounding regions, Geophy. J. Int. 157, 775–795.Google Scholar
  2. Alçiçek, M.C., Kazanci, N., and Özkul, M. (2005), Multiple rifting pulses and sedimentation pattern in the Cameli Basin, southwestern Anatolia, Turkey. Sedimentary Geology, 173, 409–431.Google Scholar
  3. Al-Lazki, A., Seber, D., Sandvol, E., Türkelli, N. and Mohamed, R. (2003), Tomographic Pn velocity and anisotropy structure beneath the Anatolian plateau (eastern Turkey) and the surrounding regions, Geoph. Res. Lett. 30 (24), 6–1, 6–4.Google Scholar
  4. Angus, D.A., Wılson, D.C., Sandvol, E. and Nı, J.F., (2006), Lithospheric structure of the Arabian and Eurasian collision zone in Eastern Turkey from S-wave receiver functions, Geophys. J. Int., 166(3), 1335–1346.Google Scholar
  5. Aydın, M., Şahintürk, O., Serdar, H.S., Özçelik Y., Akarsu, I., Ungör, A., Çokuğraş, R, and Kasar, S., (1986), Ballıdağ-Çangaldağ (Kastamonu) arasındaki bölgenin jeolojisi, Geological Society of Turkey Bulletin, 29, 1–16 (in Turkish with English abstract).Google Scholar
  6. Barka A.A. and Reılınger R., (1997), Active tectonics of the Mediterranean region: deduced from GPS, neotectonic and seismicity data, Annali di Geophis., XI, 587–610.Google Scholar
  7. Biryol, C. B., Beck, S. L., Zandt, G. and Özacar, A. A. (2011), Segment African lithosphere beneath the Anatolian region inferred from teleseismic P-wave tomography, Geophys. J. Int. 184, 1037–1057.Google Scholar
  8. Boray, A., Saroglu, F. and Emre, O. (1985), Isparta bolumunun Kuzey Kesminde D-B Daralma için bazi veriler, Jeoloji Mühendisligi, 23, 9–20 (in Turkish).Google Scholar
  9. Bozkurt, E., (2001), Neotectonics of Turkey—a synthesis, Geodin. Acta, 14, 3–30.Google Scholar
  10. Cambaz, M. D. and Karabulut, H. (2010), Love-wave group velocity maps of Turkey and surrounding regions, Geophys. J. Int. 181, 502–520.Google Scholar
  11. Cicerone, R. D., Doll JR. C. G., and Toksöz M. N. (2011), Scattering and Attenuation of Seismic Waves in Northeastern North America Bull. Seism. Soc. Am. 101:2897–2903; doi: 10.1785/0120090216.
  12. Cong, L., and Mitchell, B. (1998), Lg coda Q and its relation to the geology and tectonic of the Middle East; Pure Appl. Geophys. 153, 563–585.Google Scholar
  13. Dean, W.T., Monod, O., Rıckards, R.B., Demır, O. and Bultynck, P., (2000), Lower Paleozoic stratigraphy and palaeontology, Karadere-Zira area, Pontus Mountains, northern Turkey, Geol. Mag., 137, 555–582.Google Scholar
  14. Delaloye, M., and Bıngöl, E., (2000), Granitoids from western and Northwestern Anatolia: geochemistry and modelling of geodynamic evolution, Inter. Geol. Rev., 42, 241–268.Google Scholar
  15. Der, Z., Marshal, M. E., O’donnell, O., and Mcelfresh, W. (1984), Spatial coherence structure attenuation the Lg phase, site effects and interpretation of the Lg coda, Bull. Seism. Soc. Am. 74, 1125–1148.Google Scholar
  16. Dewey J.F., Hempton M.R., Kidd W.S.F., Saroğlu F., and Şengör A.M.C. (1986), Shortening of continental lithosphere: the neotectonics of eastern Anatolia – a young collision zone, in: Coward M.O., Ries A.C. (Eds.), Collisional Tectonics, Geological Society Special Publication no. 19, Geological Society, London,, pp. 3–36.Google Scholar
  17. Dewey J.F., and Şengör A.M.C., (1979), Aegean and surrounding regions: complex multiple and continuum tectonics in a convergent zone, Geol. Soc. Am. Bull. 90, 84–92.Google Scholar
  18. Dilek, Y., and Altunkaynak, Ş. (2009), Geochemical and temporal evolution of Cenozoic magmatism in western Turkey: mantle response to collision, slab break-off, and lithospheric tearing in an orogenic belt. Geological Society, 311; 213–233, London.Google Scholar
  19. Dolmaz, M. N., Ustaömer, T., Hisarli, M, and Orbay, N. (2005), Curie Point depth variations to infer thermal structure of the crust at the African-Eurasian convergence zone, SW Turkey, Earth Planets Space, 57, 373–383.Google Scholar
  20. Dumont, J,.F., Poisson, A. and Şahin A., (1979), Sur l’existence de coulissements senestres recents a l’extremite orientale de l’arc egeen (sud-ouest de la Turquie), C. R. Acad. Sc. Paris, 289, 261–264.Google Scholar
  21. Faccenna, C., Jolıvet, L., Pıromallo, C. and Morellı, A., (2003), Subduction and the depth of convection in the Mediterranean mantle, J. Geophys. Res., 108(B2), 2099, doi: 10.1029/2001JB001690.
  22. Faccenna,C., Bellıer,O., Martinod, J., Pıromallo,C., and Regard,V., (2006), Slab detachment beneath eastern Anatolia: a possible cause for the formation of the North Anatolian fault, Earth planet. Sci. Lett., 242, 85–97.Google Scholar
  23. Glover, C., and Robertson, A.H.F. (1998), Neogen intersection of the Aegean and Cyprus arcs: extensional and strike-slip faulting in the Isparta Angle, SW Turkey. Tectonophysics 298: 103–132.Google Scholar
  24. Göktürkler, G., Salk, M., and Sari, C. (2003), The numerical modeling of the conductive heat flow in western Anatolia, Balkan Geophys. Soc. 6, 1–15.Google Scholar
  25. Gök, R., Turkelli, N., Sandvol, E., Dogan, S., and Barazanzi, M. (2000), regional wave propagation in Turkey and surrounding regions Geophy. R. Lett. 27, 3, 429–432.Google Scholar
  26. Gök, R., Sandvol, E., Turkelı, N., Seber, D. and Barazangı, M. M., (2003), Sn attenuation in the Anatolian and Iranian plateaus and surrounding regions, Geophys. Res. Lett., 30(24), 8042, doi: 10.1029/2003GL018020.
  27. Göncüoğlu, M.C., Dürük, K. and Kozlu, H., (1997), General characteristics of pre-Alpine and Alpine Terranes in Turkey: explanatory notes to the terrane map of Turkey, Annales Geologique de Pays Hellenique, 37, 515–536.Google Scholar
  28. Görür, N., Monod, O., Okay, A. I., Şengör, A.M.C., Tüysüz, O., Yığıtbaş, E., Sakınç, M. and Akkök, R., (1997), Palaeogeographic and tectonic position of the Carboniferous rocks of the western Pontides (Turkey) in the frame of Variscan belt. Bull. soc. Geol. France, 168, 197–205.Google Scholar
  29. Ilkişik, O. M. (1995), Regional Heat Flow in Western Anatolia Using Silica Temperature Estimates from Thermal Springs, Tectonophysics, 244, 175–184.Google Scholar
  30. Jackson J.A., Kıng, G. and Vıta-fınzıc., (1992), The neotectonics of the Aegean: an alternative view, Earth planet. Sci. Lett., 61, 303–318.Google Scholar
  31. Jackson, J., 1994. Active tectonics of the Aegean region, Ann. Rev. Earth planet. Sci., 22, 239–271.Google Scholar
  32. Kadinsky-Cade, K., Barazangi, M., Oliver, J., and Isacks, B. (1981), Lateral variation in high-frequency seismic wave propagation at regional distance across the Turkish and Iranian plateaus, J. Geopys. Res., 102, 22767–22779.Google Scholar
  33. Keskin, M. (2003), Magma generation by slap steepening and breakoff beneath a subduction-accretion complex: An alternative model for collision-related volcanism in Eastern Anatolia, Turkey, Geophys. Res. Lett., 30 (24), 8046.Google Scholar
  34. Le Pıchon, X. and Angelıer, J., (1979), The Aegean arc and trench system: a key to the neotectonic evolution of the eastern Mediterranean area, Tectonophysics 6, 1–42.Google Scholar
  35. Lei, J. and Zhao, D., (2007), Teleseismic evidence for a break-off subducting slab under Eastern Turkey, Earth planet. Sci. Lett., 257, 14–28.Google Scholar
  36. Mccallum J.E. and Robertson A.H.F., (1995), Late Miocene–Early Pleistocene Athalassa Formation, north central Cyprus: carbonate sand bodies in a shallow seaway between two emerging landmasses, Terra Nova, 7, 265–277.Google Scholar
  37. Mckenzie, D.P., (1978), Active tectonics of the Alpine–Himalayan belt: the Aegean Sea and surrounding regions, Geophys. J. R. astr. Soc., 55, 217–254.Google Scholar
  38. Mitchell, B. J. (1995), Anelastic structure and evolution of continental crust and upper mantle from seismic surface wave inversion, Rev. Geophys. 33, 441–462.Google Scholar
  39. Mitchell, B. J., Pan, Y., Xie, J., and Cong, L. (1997), Lg coda Q variation across Eurasia and its relation to crustal evolution, J. Geophys. Res. 102, 22,767–22,779.Google Scholar
  40. Mitchell, B. J., Cong, L., and Ekström, G. (2008), A continent-wide map of 1-Hz Lg coda Q variation across Eurasia and its relation to lithospheric evolution, J. Geophys. Res., v. 113, B04303, doi: 10.1029/2007JB005065.
  41. Mokhtar, T.A., Ammon, C.J., Merrman, R. B., and Ghalib, H.A.A. (2001), Lithospheric structure beneath Arabia, Pure and Appl. Geophys. 158, 1445–1474.Google Scholar
  42. Notsu, K., Fujitoni, T., Uı, T., Matsuda, J. and Ercan, T., (1995), Geochemical features of collision related volcanic rocks in central and EasternAnatolia, Turkey, J. Volc. Geotherm. Res. 64, 171–192.Google Scholar
  43. Nuttli, O. W. (1973), Seismic wave attenuation and magnitude relations for eastern North America, J. Geophys. Res. 78, 5212–5219.Google Scholar
  44. Nuttli, O. W. (1988), Lg magnitudes and yield estimates for underground Novaya Zemlya nuclear explosions, Bull. Seism. Soc. Am. 78, 873–884.Google Scholar
  45. Okay, A.I., (1996), Granulite facies gneisses from the Pulur region, Eastern Pontides, Turkish J. Earth Sci., 5, 55–61.Google Scholar
  46. Özacar, A.A., Gılbert, H. and Zandt., G., (2008), Upper mantle discontinuity structure beneath East Anatolian Plateau (Turkey) from receiver functions, Earth planet. Sci. Lett., 269, 426–434.Google Scholar
  47. Özacar, A.A., Zandt, G., Gılbert, H. and Beck, S.L., (2010), Seismic images of crustal variations beneath the East Anatolian Plateau (Turkey) from teleseismic receiver functions, J. geol. Soc., Lond., Special Publications, 340, 485–496, doi: 10.1144/SP34021.
  48. Pasquare, G., Poli, S., Venzolli, L. and Zanchi, A., (1988), Continental arc volcanism and tectonic setting in Central Anatolia, Tectonophysics, 146, 217–230.Google Scholar
  49. Pearce, J. A., Bender, J.F., De Long, S.E., Kidd, W.S.F., Low, P.J., Guner, Y., Saroglu, F., Yilmaz, Y., Moorbath, S., and Mitchell, J.G. (1990), Genesis of collision volcanism in Eastern Anatolia, Turkey, J. Volcanol, Geoterm, Res. 44, 189–229.Google Scholar
  50. Pıromallo, C. and Morellı, A., (2003), P wave tomography of the mantle under the Alpine-Mediterranean area, J. geophys. Res., 108 (B2), 2065, doi: 10.1029/2002JB001757.
  51. Philips,W. S., Hartse, H. E., and Taylor, S. R. (2000), 1 Hz Lg Q tomography in central Asia, Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 3425–3428.Google Scholar
  52. Powers, R. W., Ramirez, L.F., Redmond, C.P., and Elberg, E.L. (1966), Geology of the Arabian peninsula: sedimentary geology of Saudi Arabia, U.S. Geol. Surv. Profess. Pap. 560-D, 91–96.Google Scholar
  53. Poısson, A., Wernlı, R., Sagular, E.K. and Temiz, H., (2003), New data concerning the age of the Aksu Thrust in the south of the Aksu valley, Isparta Angle (SW Turkey): consequences for the Antalya Basin and the Eastern Mediterranean, Geol. J. 38, 311–327.Google Scholar
  54. Prıce, S., and Scott, B., (1994), Fault block rotations at the edge of a zone of continental extension: southwest Turkey, J. Struct. Geol., 16, 381–392.Google Scholar
  55. Reilinger R.E., Mcclusky S.C., Oral M.B., King W. and Toksöz, M.N., (1997), Global Positioning System measurements of present-day crustal movements in the Arabia–Africa-Eurasia plate collision zone, J. geophy. Res., 102, 9983–9999.Google Scholar
  56. Robertson, A.H.F., Poısson, A. and Akıncı, Ö., (2003), Developments in research concerning Mesozoic-Tertiary Tethys and Neotectonics in the Isparta Angle, SW Turkey, Geol. J., 38 (3–4), 195–234.Google Scholar
  57. Robertson, A.H. F., Parlak, O. and Ustaömer, T., (2009), Melange genesis and ophiolite emplacement related to subduction of the northern margin of the Tauride–Anatolide continent, central and western Turkey, in Collision and Collapse at the AfricaArabiaEurasia Subduction Zone, pp. 9–66, Vol. 311, eds van Hinsbergen, D.J.J., Edwards, M.A. & Govers, R., J. Geol. Soc., London, Special Publications.Google Scholar
  58. Rotstein, Y., and Kafka, A. L. (1982), Seismotectonics of the southern boundary of Anatolia, eastern Mediterrenean region: subduction, collision, and are jumping, J. Geophys. Res. 87, 7694–7706.Google Scholar
  59. Rodger, A., Ni, J., and Hearn T. (1997), Propagation characteristics of short period n and Lg in the Middle east, Bull. Seism. Soc. Am. 87, 396–413.Google Scholar
  60. Sandvol, E., Seber, D., Barazangi, M., Vernon, F., Mellors, R., and Al-Amrı A., (1998), Lithospheric seismic velocity discontinuities beneath the Arabian Shield, Geophys. Res. Lett., 25(15), 2873–2876.Google Scholar
  61. Sandvol, E., Al-Damegh, K., Calvert, A., Seber, D., Barazangi, M., Mohamed, R., Gök, R., Turkelli, N., and Gürbüz, C. (2001), Tomographic imaging of observed regional wave propagation in the Middle East, Pure Appl. Geophys., 158, 1121–1163.Google Scholar
  62. Sengör, A.M.C., and Kidd, W.S.F. (1979), Post-collision tectonics of the Turkish-Iranian Plateau and a comparison with Tibet, Tectonophysics 55, 361–376.Google Scholar
  63. Sengor, A.M.C, Özeren, S., Genç, T., and Zor, E. (2003), East Anatolian high plateau as a mantle-supported, N–S shortened domal structure, Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, 8044, doi: 10.1029/2003GL017858.
  64. Seyıtoğlu, G., and Scott, B., (1991), Late Cenozoic crustal extension and basin formation in west Turkey, Geol. Mag., 128, 155–166.Google Scholar
  65. Seyıtoğlu, G., Scott, B.C. and Rundle, C.C., (1992), Timing of Cenozoic extensional tectonics in west Turkey, J. Geol. Soc., Lond., 149, 533–538.Google Scholar
  66. Şengör, A.M.C. & Yılmaz, Y., (1981), Tethyan evolution of Turkey: a plate tectonic approach, Tectonophysics, 75, 181–241.Google Scholar
  67. Şengör, A.M.C., Görür, N. and Şaroğlu, F., (1985), Strike-slip faulting and related basin formation in zones of tectonic escape: Turkey as a case study, in Strike-slip Faulting and Basin Formation, pp. 227–264., Vol. 37, eds Biddle, K.T., Christie-Blick, N., Soc. Econ. Paleont. Miner. Spec. Publ.Google Scholar
  68. Spakman, W.A.V., Wortel, M. J. R. and Vlaar, N.J., (1988), The Aegean subduction zone: a tomographic image and its geodynamic implications, Geophys. Res. Lett. 15, 60–63.Google Scholar
  69. Taymaz, T., Yılmaz, Y. and Dilek, Y., (2007a), The Geodynamics of the Aegean and Anatolia: Introduction, in The Geodynamics of the Aegean and Anatolia, pp. 1–16, Vol. 29, eds Tuncay, Taymaz, Y¨ucel, Yılmaz & Yıldırım, Dilek, J. Geol. Soc., London, Special Publications.Google Scholar
  70. Taymaz, T., Wrıght, T., Yolsal, S., Tan, O., Fıeldıng, E. and Seyıtoğlu, G., (2007b), Source Characteristics of June 6, 2000 Orta-Çankırı (Central Turkey) Earthquake: a synthesis of seismological, geological and geodetic (InSAR) observations, and internal deformation of Anatolian plate, J. Geol. Soc., Lond., Special Publications, 291, 259–290.Google Scholar
  71. Taymaz, T., Jackson, J. and Mckenzıe, D.P., (1991), Active tectonics of the North and Central Aegean Sea, Geophys. J. Int., 106, 433–490.Google Scholar
  72. Taymaz, T. and Prıce S.P., (1992), The 12.05.1971 Burdur earthquake sequence: a synthesis of seismological and geological observations, Geophys. J. Int., 108, 589–603.Google Scholar
  73. Ten Veen, J.H., Woodsıde, M., Zıtter, T.A.C., Dumont, J.F., Mascle, J. and Volkonskaıa, A., (2004), Neotectonic evolution of the Anaximander Mountains at the junction of the Hellenic and Cyprus Arcs, Tectonophysics, 391, 35–65.Google Scholar
  74. Tezcan, A. K., and Turgay, I. (1989), Heat Flow Map of Turkey, General Directorate of Mineral Research and Exploration (MTA), Department of Geophysics Research, Ankara (unpubl.), (in Turkish).Google Scholar
  75. Türkellı, N., Horasan, G., Kulelı, H.S. and Reıter, D., (1996), Preliminary results of velocity distribution study in eastern Turkey, EOS, Trans. Am. Geophys. Un., 77(46), p. 477.Google Scholar
  76. Verhaert, G., Sımılox-Tohon, D., Vandycke, S., Sıntubın, M., and Muchez, P., (2006), Different stress states in the Burdur-Isparta region (SW Turkey) since Late Miocene times: a reflection of a transient stress regime, J.Struct. Geol., 28, 1067–1083.Google Scholar
  77. Wdowınskı, S., Ben-Avraham, Z., Arvıdsson, R. and Ekstrom, G., (2006), Seismotectonics of the Cyprian Arc, Geophys. J. Int., 164, 176–181.Google Scholar
  78. Xie, J., and Mitchell, B. J. (1990), A back projection method for imaging large-scale lateral variation in Lg coda Q with application to continental Africa, Geophys. J. Int. 100, 161–181.Google Scholar
  79. Xie, J., Gok, R., Ni, J., and Aoki, Y. (2004), Lateral variations of crustal seismic attenuation along the INDEPTH profiles in the Tibet from Lg Q inversion, J. Geophys. Res. 109, B10308, doi: 10.1029/2004JB002988.
  80. Xie, J., Wu, Z., Liu, R. Schaff, D., Liu, Y., and Liang, J. (2006), Tomographic regionalization of crustal Lg Q in eastern Eurasia, Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L03315, doi: 10.1029/2005GL024410.
  81. Yılmaz, Y., (1990), Comparisons of the young volcanic associations of the west and the east Anatolia under the compressional regime: a review, J. Volc. Geotherm. Res., 44, 69–87.Google Scholar
  82. Yılmaz, Y., Genç, Ş.C., Karacık, Z. and Altunkaynak, Ş., (2001), Two contrasting magmatic associations of NW Anatolia and their tectonic significance, J. Geodyn., 31, 243–271.Google Scholar
  83. Zıtter, T.A.C.,Woodsıde, J.M. and Mascle, J., (2003), The AnaximanderMountains: a clue to the tectonics of southwest Anatolia, Geol. J., 38, 375–394.Google Scholar
  84. Zor, E., (2008), Tomographic evidence of slab detachment beneath eastern Turkey and the Caucasus, Geophys. J. Int., 175, 1273–1282.Google Scholar
  85. Zor, E., Sandvol, E., Gürbüz, C., Türkellı, N., Seber, D. and Barazangı, M., (2003), The Crustal Structure of the East Anatolian Plateau from Receiver Functions, Geophys. Res. Lett., 30, 8044, doi: 10.1029/2003GL018192.
  86. Zor, E., Sandvol, E., Xie, J., Türkelli, N., Mitchell, B., Gasanov, A. H., and Yetirmishli, G. (2007) Crustal attenuation within the Turkish Plateau and surrounding regions, Bull. Seism. Soc. Am., 97, 151–161.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Basel AG 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sakir Sahin
    • 1
  • Xueyang Bao
    • 2
  • Niyazi Turkelli
    • 3
  • Eric Sandvol
    • 2
  • Ugur Teoman
    • 3
  • Metin Kahraman
    • 3
  1. 1.Geophysical DivisionEngineering and Architecture Faculty, SDUIspartaTurkey
  2. 2.Department of Geological SciencesUniversity of MissouriColumbiaUSA
  3. 3.Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research InstituteBogazici UniversityIstanbulTurkey

Personalised recommendations