Finite Difference Simulations of Seismic Wave Propagation for the 2007 Mw 6.6 Niigata-ken Chuetsu-Oki Earthquake: Validity of Models and Reliable Input Ground Motion in the Near-Field
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Finite difference simulations of seismic wave propagation are performed in the Niigata area, Japan, for the 2007 Mw 6.6 Niigata-ken Chuetsu-Oki earthquake at low frequencies. We test three 3D structural models built independently in various studies. First aftershock simulations are carried out. The model based on 3D tomography yields correct body waves in the near field, but later phases are imperfectly reproduced due to the lack of shallow sediment layers; other models based on various 1D/2D profiles and geological interpretation provide good site responses but generate seismic phases that may be shifted from those actually observed. Next, for the mainshock simulations, we adopt two different finite source models that differ in the near-field ground motion, especially above the fault plane (but under the sea) and then along the coastline. Each model is found to be calibrated differently for the given stations. For engineering purposes, the variations observed in simulated ground motion are significant, but for seismological purposes, additional parameter calibrations would be possible for such a complex 3D case.
KeywordsGround Motion Strong Ground Motion Spectral Element Method Seismic Wave Propagation Source Time Function
This work is carried out mainly in the framework of the French national ANR DEBATE project (Development of Broadband Acceleration Timeseries for Engineers; 2009–2012). We thank all the colleagues for making available their numerical results: Drs. A. Kato, S. Aoi, H. Sekiguchi, K. Hikima and K. Koketsu. Many fruitful discussions were held with Profs. Raul Madariaga, Dr. Fabian Bonilla and Prof. Hiroshi Kawase, and Dr. Ken-ichi Tsuda from the DEBATE project. We also express our appreciation for the data provided by K-net, KiK-net, and F-net of the National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention. HA thanks NIED (Dr. E. Fukuyama) for his invitation to Japan in October 2010. MY thanks AIST-GSJ for funding his visit to BRGM in 2009–2010. Part of the simulations were carried out at the super computing center (GENCI-CINES) in France (Grant 2011-46700).
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