Pure and Applied Geophysics

, Volume 169, Issue 9, pp 1679–1692 | Cite as

A Coastal Aquifer Study Using Magnetotelluric and Gravity Methods in Abo Zenema, Egypt

  • Mohamed Abdelzaher
  • Jun Nishijima
  • Hakim Saibi
  • Gad El-Qady
  • Usama Massoud
  • Mamdouh Soliman
  • Abdellatif Younis
  • Sachio Ehara
Article

Abstract

Magnetotelluric (MT) soundings and gravity methods were employed to study the deep freshwater aquifer in the area north of Abo Zenema city on the eastern side of the Gulf of Suez, Egypt. Seven MT sites and 48 gravity stations were surveyed along northeast–southwest profiles as close as possible to a line perpendicular to the coast of the Gulf of Suez. The MT survey was conducted using high and low frequencies to investigate shallow and deep areas, respectively. One-dimensional inversion was conducted using a heuristic inversion scheme of the Bostick algorithm. The MT data were also inverted with a 2-D smooth model inversion routine using the nonlinear conjugate gradient method to infer variation in vertical and lateral resistivity inside the Earth. A 100-Ohm-m homogeneous half-space initial model was used to invert the TE mode data only. Then, the inverted model obtained from the TE mode data was used as an initial model for inversion of the TM mode data. The inverted model thus obtained from the TM mode data inversion was used as an initial model for the inversion of the joint TE and TM responses. Two-dimensional (2-D) forward modeling of the gravity data was conducted using the 2-D polygon method of Talwani’s algorithm for an arbitrarily shaped body and was based on the subsurface information from the MT survey and the available information about the geological structure of the study area. This method enabled us to obtain the basement structure of the coastal aquifer in the study area. The results from the analysis and the interpretation of MT and gravity data were used to detect and delineate the groundwater coastal aquifer in the study area.

Keywords

Gravity magnetotelluric aquifer Abo Zenema Gulf of Suez Egypt 

References

  1. Battaglia, M., Gottsmann, J., Carbone, D., and Fernández, J. (2008), 4D volcano gravimetry, Geophysics 73(6), 3–18.Google Scholar
  2. Beamish, D., and Travassos, J. M. (1992), The use of the D + solution in magnetotelluric interpretation, Journal of Applied Geophysics 29, 1–19.Google Scholar
  3. Berdichevsky, M. N., Dmitriev, V. I., and Pozdnjakova, E. E. (1998), On two-dimensional interpretation of magnetotelluric soundings, Geophys. J. Int. 133, 585–606.Google Scholar
  4. Bhattacharyya, B. K., and Navolio, M.E. (1975), Digital convolution for computing gravity and magnetic anomalies due to arbitrary bodies, Geophysics 40, 981–992.Google Scholar
  5. Bostick, F.X. (1977), A simple almost exact method of MT analysis, Workshop on, Electromagnetic Methods in Geothermal Exploration, Snowbird, Utah, U.S, Geol, Surv., Contract no, 14080001–8–359.Google Scholar
  6. Cagniard, L. (1953), Basic theory of magnetotelluric method of geophysical prospecting, Geophysics, 18, 605–635.Google Scholar
  7. Chandrasekhar, E., Fontes, S. L., Flexor, J. M., Rajaram, M., and Anand, S.P. (2009), Magnetotelluric and aeromagnetic investigations for assessment of groundwater resources in Parnaiba basin in Piaui State of North-East Brazil, Journal of Applied Geophysics 68, 269–281.Google Scholar
  8. Chakravarti, V., and Rao, C.V. (1993), Parabolic density function in sedimentary basin modeling. In: Proceedings of the 18th Annual Convention and Seminar on Exploration Geophysics, Jaipur, India, Souvenir 16.Google Scholar
  9. Chakravarti, V., Singh, S.B., and Ashok, B. G. (2001), INVER2DBASE-A program to compute basement depths of density interfaces above which the density contrast varies with depth, Comput. Geosei. 27, 1127–1133. doi:10.1016/S0098-3004(01)00035-8.
  10. Chouteau, M., Krivochieva. S., Rodriguez, R., Gonzalez, and T., Jouanne, V. (1994), Study of the Santa Catarina aquifer system (Mexico basin) using magnetotelluric soundings, J. Appl. Geophys. 31, 85–106.Google Scholar
  11. Colletta, B., Le Quellec, P., Letouzey, J. and Moretti, I. (1988), Longitudinal evolution of the Suez rift structure (Egypt), Tectonophysics 153, 221–233.Google Scholar
  12. Corriols, M., Nielsen, M.R., Dahlin, T. and Hristensen, N.B. (2009), Aquifer investigations in the León-Chinandega plains, Nicaragua, using electromagnetic and electrical methods, Near Surface Geophysics, 413–425.Google Scholar
  13. Falgàs E. (2007), Hydrogeophysics as a multidisciplinary tool on aquifer appraisal: Focus on AMT capabilities. PhD thesis. University of Barcelona. http://www.tesisenxarxa.net/TDX-0310108-132735/index.html
  14. Falgàs, E., Ledo, J., Marcuello, A. and Queralt, P. (2009), Monitoring freshwater-seawater interface dynamics with audiomagnetotelluric data, Near Surface Geophysics, 391–399.Google Scholar
  15. Gawthorpe, R.L., Jackson, C.A.L., Young, M.J., Sharp, I.R., Moustafa, A.R., and Leppard, C.W. (2003), Normal fault growth is placement localization and the evolution of normal fault populations: the Hammam Faraun fault block, Suez Rift, Egypt, Journal of Structural Geology 25, 883–895.Google Scholar
  16. Geological Survey of Egypt. Geological map of Sinai, Arab Republic of Egypt (1994), Sheet no. 1, Scale 1: 250,000.Google Scholar
  17. Giroux, B., Chouteau, M., Descloitres, M., and Ritz, M. (1997), Use of the magnetotelluric method in the study of the deep Maestrichtian aquifer in Senegal, J. Appl. Geophysics 38, 77–96.Google Scholar
  18. Jackson, C.A.L., Gawthorpe, R.L., and Sharp, I.R. (2002), Growth and linkage of the East Tanka fault zone; structural style and syn-rift stratigraphic response. Journal of the Geological Society of London 159, 175–187.Google Scholar
  19. Kirsch, R. (2009), Groundwater GeophysicsA tool for hydrogeology (2nd Edition), Springer, 548 pp.Google Scholar
  20. Nettleton, L. (1940), Geophysical Prospecting for Oil, McGraw—Hill Book Co.Google Scholar
  21. Nishijima, J. (2009), A Terrain correction program using 50 m mesh digital elevation data, Geothermal and Volcanological Research Report of Kyushu University 18, 35–38.Google Scholar
  22. Nguyen, F., Kemna, A., Antonsson, A., Engesgaard, P., Kuras, O., Ogilvy, R., Gisbert, J., Jorreto, S. and Pulido-Bosch, A. (2009), Characterization of seawater intrusion using 2D electrical imaging, Near Surface Geophysics, 377–390.Google Scholar
  23. Pedersen, L. B., Bastani, M. and Dynesius, L. (2005), Groundwater exploration using combined controlled-source and radiomagnetotelluric techniques, Geophys. 70, 8–15.Google Scholar
  24. Pedersen, L. B. and Engels, M. (2005), Routine 2D inversion of magnetotelluric data using the determinant of the impedance tensor, Geophys. 70(2), G33–G41.Google Scholar
  25. Reddy, I.K., Rankin, D. and Phillips, R.J. (1977), Three-dimensional modeling in magnetotelluric and magnetic variational sounding, Geophys. J. R. Astron. Sot. 51, 313–325.Google Scholar
  26. Rodi, W. and Mackie, R.L. (2001), Nonlinear conjugate gradient algorithm for 2D magnetotelluric inversion, Geophys. 66, 174–187.Google Scholar
  27. Simpson, F. and Bahr, K. (2005), Practical Magnetotelluric, Cambridge University, Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  28. Talwani, M., Worzel, J. and Ladisman, M. (1959), Rapid gravity computations for two dimensional bodies with application to the Medocino submarine fracture zone, J. Geophy. Res. 64(1), 49–59.Google Scholar
  29. Tammemagi, H.Y., and Lilley, F.E.M. (1973), A magnetotelluric traverse in Southern Australia, Geophys. J. R. Astr. Sot. 31, 433–445.Google Scholar
  30. Vozoff, K. (1972), The magnetotelluric method in the exploration of sedimentary basins, Geophysics 37, 98–141.Google Scholar
  31. Vozoff, K. (1991), The magnetotelluric method. In: Nabighian, M.N. (ed.), Electromagnetic Methods in Applied Geophysics. Tulsa, Oklahoma, Society of Exploration and Geophysics 2B, 641–711.Google Scholar
  32. Mazác, O., Cislerová, M., Kelly, W.E., Landa, I. and Venhodová, D. (1990), Determination of hydraulic conductivities by surface geoelectrical methods, In: Geotechnical and Environmental Geophysics (ed. S.H. Ward). SEG.Google Scholar
  33. Tezkan, B. (1999), A review of environmental applications of quasi-station-ary electromagnetic techniques, Surveys in Geophysics 20, 279–308.Google Scholar
  34. Pellerin, L. (2002), Applications of electrical and electromagnetic methods for environmental and geotechnical investigations, Surveys in Geophysics 23, 101–132.Google Scholar
  35. Goldman, M. and Kafri, U. (2004), The use of time domain electromagnetic TDEM method to evaluate porosity of saline water saturated aquifers, In: Groundwater and Saline Intrusion (eds L. Araguás, E. Custodio and M. Manzano), pp. 327–339. IGME.Google Scholar
  36. Unsworth M., Soyer W., Tuncer V., Wagner A. and Barnes D. (2007), Hydrogeologic assessment of the Amchitka Island nuclear test site (Alaska) with magnetotellurics, Geophysics 73, B47–B57.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Basel AG 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mohamed Abdelzaher
    • 1
  • Jun Nishijima
    • 2
  • Hakim Saibi
    • 3
  • Gad El-Qady
    • 1
  • Usama Massoud
    • 1
  • Mamdouh Soliman
    • 1
  • Abdellatif Younis
    • 1
  • Sachio Ehara
    • 2
  1. 1.National Research Institute of Astronomy and GeophysicsCairoEgypt
  2. 2.Laboratory of Geothermic, Earth Resources Engineering DepartmentKyushu UniversityKyushuJapan
  3. 3.Laboratory of Exploration Geophysics, Earth Resources Engineering DepartmentKyushu UniversityKyushuJapan

Personalised recommendations