Advertisement

Pure and Applied Geophysics

, Volume 169, Issue 9, pp 1589–1600 | Cite as

Seismic Wave Attenuation in the Greater Cairo Region, Egypt

  • Ahmed Badawy
  • Mamdouh A. Morsy
Article

Abstract

In the present study, a digital waveform dataset of 216 local earthquakes recorded by the Egyptian National Seismic Network (ENSN) was used to estimate the attenuation of seismic wave energy in the greater Cairo region. The quality factor and the frequency dependence for Coda waves and S-waves were estimated and clarified. The Coda waves (Q c) and S-waves (Q d) quality factor were estimated by applying the single scattering model and Coda Normalization method, respectively, to bandpass-filtered seismograms of frequency bands centering at 1.5, 3, 6, 12, 18 and 24 Hz. Lapse time dependence was also studied for the area, with the Coda waves analyzed through four lapse time windows (10, 20, 30 and 40 s). The average quality factor as function of frequency is found to be Q c = 35 ± 9f 0.9±0.02 and Q d = 10 ± 2f 0.9±0.02 for Coda and S-waves, respectively. This behavior is usually correlated with the degree of tectonic complexity and the presence of heterogeneities at several scales. The variation of Q c with frequency and lapse time shows that the lithosphere becomes more homogeneous with depth. In fact, by using the Coda Normalization method we obtained low Q d values as expected for a heterogeneous and active zone. The intrinsic quality factor (Q i −1 ) was separated from the scattering quality factor (Q s −1 ) by applying the Multiple Lapse Time Domain Window Analysis (MLTWA) method under the assumption of multiple isotropic scattering with uniform distribution of scatters. The obtained results suggest that the contribution of the intrinsic attenuation (Q i −1 ) prevails on the scattering attenuation (Q s −1 ) at frequencies higher than 3 Hz.

Keywords

Coda waves quality factor intrinsic scattering S-wave cairo 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors are grateful to the editor-in-Chief Prof. Brian Mitchell and the two anonymous reviewers for their critical reviews which have greatly helped to improve the paper. This work has been carried out at Earthquake Division of the National Research Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics (NRIAG), the authors are also grateful to the all staff members of the ENSN. Great thanks to Prof. D. Kossy at Imperial College, London, for reviewing the revised version of the manuscript.

References

  1. Abdel Aal, A., Price, J., Vaitl, D.J., and Shrallow, A. (1994). Tectonic evolution of the Nile Delta, its impact on sedimentation and hydrocarbon. In: Twelfth Petroleum Exploration and Production Conference, November 1994, pp. 19–34.Google Scholar
  2. Aki, K. (1980a) Scattering and attenuation of shear waves in the lithosphere. J. Geophys. Res. 85, 6496–6504.Google Scholar
  3. Aki, K. (1980b) Attenuation of shear-waves in the lithosphere for frequencies from 0.05 to 25 Hz. Phys. Earth. Planet. Interiors, 21, 50–60.Google Scholar
  4. Aki, K. (1981) Attenuation and scattering of short-period seismic waves in the lithosphere, in: Identification of seismic sources – Earthquake or Underground Exploration, ed. by E. S. Husebye and S. Mykkeltveit, pp. 515–541, D. Reidel, Dordrecht, Holland.Google Scholar
  5. Aki, K. and Chouet, B. (1975) Origin of Coda waves: source attenuation and scattering effects. J. Geophys. Res. 80, 3322–3342.Google Scholar
  6. Akinci., N. and Eydogan, H. (2000). Scattering and anelastic attenuation of seismic energy in the vicinity of north Anatolian fault zone, eastern turkey. Phys. Earth planet Inter., 122, 229–239.Google Scholar
  7. Akinci, A., Taktak, A.G. and Ergintav, S. (1994). Attenuation of Coda waves in Western Anatolia. Phys. Earth Planet. Int. 87, 155–165.Google Scholar
  8. Ambraseys, N. N., Melville, C. P. & Adam, R. D., 1994. The seismicity of Egypt, Arabia and Red sea: a historical Review. Cambridge university press.Google Scholar
  9. Argyriadis, I, De Graciansky, P.C., Marcoux, J., and Ricou, L.E. (1980) The opening of the Meszoic Tethys between Eurasiaand Arabia–Africa. Mem, Du Bureau de Recherches Geologiques et Minieres 1 vol 115, pp. 199–214.Google Scholar
  10. Badawy, A. (1996). Seismicity and kinematic evolution of the Sinai plate. Ph D thesis, pp 115, L. Eötvös Univ. Budapest.Google Scholar
  11. Badawy, A. (1999). Historical Seismicity of Egypt. Acta Geod. Geoph. Hung., 34 (1–2), 119–135.Google Scholar
  12. Badawy A. (2005). Seismicity of Egypt. Seismolo. Res. Lett., 76(2), 149–160.Google Scholar
  13. Badawy, A., and Horváth, F. (1999a). Seismicity of the Sinai subplate region: Kinematic implications. J. Geodynam., 27, 451–468.Google Scholar
  14. Badawy, A. & Horváth, F., 1999b. Sinai subplate and kinematic evolution of the northern Red Sea. J. Geodynamics, 27: 433–450.Google Scholar
  15. Barron, T. (1907). The topography and geology of the area between Cairo and Suez, Egypt, Surv. Dept., Cairo, p. 133.Google Scholar
  16. Bianco, F., Del Pezzo, E., Castellano, M., Ibãnez, J., and Di Luccio, F. (2002). Separation of intrinsic and scattering seismic attenuation in the Southern Apennine zone, Italy. Geophys. J. Int., 150, 10–22.Google Scholar
  17. Biswas, N.N., and Aki, K. (1984). Characteristics of Coda waves: central and southcentral Alaska. Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am. 74, 493–507.Google Scholar
  18. Castro, R.R., Monachesi, G., Trojani, L., Mucciarelli, M., and Frapiccini, M. (2002). An attenuation study using earthquakes from the 1997 Umbria-Marche sequence. J. Seismol., 6, 43–59.Google Scholar
  19. Dutta, U., Biswas, N.N., Adams, D.A., and Papageorgiou, A. (2004). Analysis of S-wave attenuation in south central Alaska. Bull. Seism. Soc. Am. 94, 16–28.Google Scholar
  20. El-Hadidy, S., Adel, M. E., Deif, A., Abu El-Ata, A. S. & Moustafa, S. R., 2006. Estimation of frequency dependent Coda wave attenuation structure at the vicinity of Cairo Metropolitan Area, Acta Geophysica, 54, 177-186.Google Scholar
  21. Frankel, A.A. (1991). Mechanisms of seismic attenuation in the crust: scattering and anelasticity in New York State, South Africa and Southern California. J. geophys. Res., 96, 6269–6289.Google Scholar
  22. Frankel, A., and Wennerberg, L. (1987). Energy flux model of seismic coda: Separation of scattering and intrinsic attenuation. Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am., 77, 1223–1251.Google Scholar
  23. Giampiccolo, E., Tuvè, T., Gresta, S. & Patanè, D., 2006. S-waves attenuation and separation of scattering and intrinsic absorption of seismic energy in southeastern Sicily (Italy). Geophys. J. Int. 165, 211-222.Google Scholar
  24. Gupta, S.C., Teotia, S.S., Rai, S.S., and Gautam, N. (1998). Coda Q estimates in the Koyna region, India. Pure Appl. Geophys., 153, 713–731.Google Scholar
  25. Havskov, J., Kvamme, L., and Bungum H. (1986). Attenuation of seismic waves in the Jan Mayen island area. Marine Geophys. Res., 8, 39–47.Google Scholar
  26. Havskov, J., Malone, S., McClurg, D., and Crosson, R. (1989). Coda Q for the state of Washington. Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am., 79, 1024–1037.Google Scholar
  27. Havskov, J., and Ottemoller, L. (2003). SEISAN: The Earthquake Analysis Softwares forWindows, Solaris and Linux, Version 8.0. Institute of Solid Earth Physics, University of Bergen, Norway.Google Scholar
  28. Hoshiba, M. (1991). Simulation of multiple scattered Coda wave excitation based on the energy conservation law. Phys. Earth Planet Inter. 67, 123–136.Google Scholar
  29. Hoshiba, M., Sato, H., and Fehler, M. (1991). Numerical basis of the separation of scattering and intrinsic absorption from full seismogram envelop- a Monte Carlo simulation of multi isotropic scattering. Paper Metrol. Geophys., 42, 65–91.Google Scholar
  30. Mandal, P., Jainendra, Joshi, S.,Kumar, S., Bhunia, R., Rastogi, B.K., 2004. Low coda Q c in the epicentral region of the 2001 Bhuj earthquake of Mw 7.7. Pure Appl. Geophys. 161, 1635–1654.Google Scholar
  31. McSweeney, T.J., Biswas, N.N., Mayeda, K., and Aki, K. (1991). Scattering and anelastic attenuation of seismic energy in central and south central Alaska. Phys. Earth Planet. Inter., 67, 115–122.Google Scholar
  32. Meshref, W.M. (1990). Tectonic framework, ed. by in Said, R. The geology of Egypt: Rotterdam, A. A. Balkema, pp. 112–155.Google Scholar
  33. Mitchell, B.J. (1995). Anelastic structure and evolution of the continental crust and upper mantle from seismic surface wave attenuation. Rev. Geophys., 33, 441–462.Google Scholar
  34. Orwig, E. R. (1982). Tectonic framework of northern Egypt and the eastern Mediterranean. EGPC: 5th Exploration Seminar, Cairo, Egypt, p. 20.Google Scholar
  35. Pujades, L.G., Ugalde, A., Canas, J.A., Navarro, M., Badal, F.J., and Corchete, V. (1997). Intrinsic and scattering attenuation from observed seismic codas in the Almeria Basin (southeastern Iberian Peninsula). Geophys. J. Int. 129, 281–291.Google Scholar
  36. Rautian, T.G., and Khalturin, V.I. (1978). The use of the coda for determination of the earthquake source spectrum. Bull. Seism.Soc. Am. 68, 923–948.Google Scholar
  37. Said, R. (1962). The geology of Egypt. Elsevier Pub. Co., New york, 337 pp.Google Scholar
  38. Said, R. (1981). The geological evolution of the River Nile. Elsevier Pub. Co., Amsterdam & New York, 180 pp.Google Scholar
  39. Sato, H. (1977). Energy propagation including scattering effects: single scattering approximation. J. Phys. Earth, 25, 27–41Google Scholar
  40. Shukri, N.M. (1953). The geology of the desert east of Cairo. Bll. Inst. Desert d’ Egypt, vol. 3(2), 89–105.Google Scholar
  41. Shukri, N.M.and Akmal, M.G. (1953). The geology of Gebel el Nassuri and Gebel El Anqabia district, Cairo-Suez. Bull. Soc. Geogr. Egypt, 26, 246.Google Scholar
  42. Shukri, N.M., and El Ayouty, M.K. (1956). The geology of Gebel Oweibid-Gafra area, Cairo-Suez district. Bull. Soc. Geogr. Egypt, 29, 67–109.Google Scholar
  43. Wennerberg, L. (1993). Multiple scattering interpretations of coda Q measurements. Bull. Seism. Soc. Am., 83, 279–290.Google Scholar
  44. Wu, R.S. (1984). Seismic wave scattering and the small scale inhomogeneities in the lithosphere. Ph.D. thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, 305 pp.Google Scholar
  45. Wu, R.S. (1985). Multiple scattering and energy transfer of seismic waves—separation of scattering effect from intrinsic attenuation. I. Theoretical modeling. Geophys. J. R. Astr. Soc., 82, 57–80.Google Scholar
  46. Yoshimoto, K., Sato, H., and Ohteka M. (1993). Frequency-dependent attenuation of P and S-waves in Kanto area, Japan based on coda-normalization method. Geophys. J. Inter., 114, 165–174.Google Scholar
  47. Zeng, Y. (1991). Compact solutions for multiple scattered wave energy in time domain. Bull. Seism. Soc. Am., 81, 1022–1029.Google Scholar
  48. Zeng,Y., Su, F., Aki, K. (1991). Scattering wave energy propagation in the random isotropic scattering medium 1. Theory J. Geophys. Res., 96, 607–619.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Basel AG 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Earthquake DivisionNational Research Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics (NRIAG)Helwan, CairoEgypt

Personalised recommendations