Pure and Applied Geophysics

, Volume 168, Issue 1–2, pp 105–116 | Cite as

Characterization of Stress Drops on Asperities Estimated from the Heterogeneous Kinematic Slip Model for Strong Motion Prediction for Inland Crustal Earthquakes in Japan

Article

Abstract

Dense strong motion observation networks provided us with valuable data for studying strong motion generation from large earthquakes. From kinematic waveform inversion of seismic data, the slip distribution on the fault surface of large earthquakes is known to be spatially heterogeneous. Because heterogeneities in the slip and stress drop distributions control the generation of near-source ground motion, it is important to characterize these heterogeneities for past earthquakes in constructing a source model for reliable prediction of strong ground motion. The stress changes during large earthquakes on the faults recently occurring in Japan are estimated from the detailed slip models obtained by the kinematic waveform inversion. The stress drops on and off asperities are summarized on the basis of the stress change distributions obtained here. In this paper, we define the asperity to be a rectangular area whose slip is 1.5 or more times larger than the average slip over the fault according to the previous study for inland crustal earthquakes. The average static stress drops on the asperities of the earthquakes studied here are in the range 6–23 MPa, whereas those off the asperities are below 3 MPa. We compiled the stress drop on the asperities together with a data set from previous studies of other inland earthquakes in Japan and elsewhere. The static stress drop on the asperity depends on its depth, and we obtained an empirical relationship between the static stress drop and the asperity’s depth. Moreover, surface-breaking asperities seemed to have smaller stress drops than buried asperities. Simple ground motion simulations using the characterized asperity source models reveal that deep asperities generate larger ground motion than shallow asperities, because of the different stress drops of the asperities. These characteristics can be used for advanced source modeling in strong ground motion prediction for inland crustal earthquakes.

Keywords

Stress drop asperity inland crustal earthquake source model strong motion prediction 

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Copyright information

© Birkhäuser / Springer Basel AG 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Disaster Prevention Research InstituteKyoto UniversityUjiJapan

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