Implementation of Particle-scale Rotation in the 3-D Lattice Solid Model
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In this study, 3-D Lattice Solid Model (LSMearth or LSM) was extended by introducing particle-scale rotation. In the new model, for each 3-D particle, we introduce six degrees of freedom: Three for translational motion, and three for orientation. Six kinds of relative motions are permitted between two neighboring particles, and six interactions are transferred, i.e., radial, two shearing forces, twisting and two bending torques. By using quaternion algebra, relative rotation between two particles is decomposed into two sequence-independent rotations such that all interactions due to the relative motions between interactive rigid bodies can be uniquely decided. After incorporating this mechanism and introducing bond breaking under torsion and bending into the LSM, several tests on 2-D and 3-D rock failure under uni-axial compression are carried out. Compared with the simulations without the single particle rotational mechanism, the new simulation results match more closely experimental results of rock fracture and hence, are encouraging. Since more parameters are introduced, an approach for choosing the new parameters is presented.
Keywords3-D Particle Rotation decomposition of rotation quaternion the Lattice Solid Model Distinct Element Method
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