pure and applied geophysics

, Volume 163, Issue 2–3, pp 455–473 | Cite as

The Theory of Coda Wave Interferometry

  • Roel Snieder


Coda waves are sensitive to changes in the subsurface because the strong scattering that generates these waves causes them to repeatedly sample a limited region of space. Coda wave interferometry is a technique that exploits this sensitivity to estimate slight changes in the medium from a comparison of the coda waves before and after the perturbation. For spatially localized changes in the velocity, or for changes in the source location, the travel-time perturbation may be different for different scattering paths. The coda waves that arrive within a certain time window are therefore subject to a distribution of travel-time perturbations. Here I present the general theory of coda wave interferometry, and show how the time-shifted correlation coefficient can be used to estimate the mean and variance of the distribution of travel-time perturbations. I show how this general theory can be used to estimate changes in the wave velocity, in the location of scatterer positions, and in the source location.


Monitoring scattering coda waves 


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Copyright information

© Birkhäuser Verlag, Basel, 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Center for Wave Phenomena and Department of GeophysicsColorado School of MinesGoldenU.S.A

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