Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences

, Volume 76, Issue 22, pp 4447–4459 | Cite as

G-protein βγ subunits as multi-functional scaffolds and transducers in G-protein-coupled receptor signaling

  • Alan V. SmrckaEmail author
  • Isaac Fisher


G-protein βγ subunits are key participants in G-protein signaling. These subunits facilitate interactions between receptors and G proteins that are critical for the G protein activation cycle at the plasma membrane. In addition, they play roles in directly transducing signals to an ever expanding range of downstream targets, including integral membrane and cytosolic proteins. Emerging data indicate that Gβγ may play additional roles at intracellular compartments including endosomes, the Golgi apparatus, and the nucleus. Here, we discuss the molecular and structural basis for their ability to coordinate this wide range of cellular activities.


G protein G-protein-coupled receptor WD-40 repeat proteins Signal transduction Membrane interactions Translocation Second messengers Cyclic AMP Phosphatidylinositol Adenylate cyclase G-protein-coupled receptor kinase Phospholipase C Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase 



National Institutes of Health R35GM127303.


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PharmacologyUniversity of Michigan Medical SchoolAnn ArborUSA
  2. 2.Department of Pharmacology and PhysiologyUniversity of Rochester School of MedicineRochesterUSA

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