Placental mesenchymal stromal cells as an alternative tool for therapeutic angiogenesis
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Dysregulation of angiogenesis is a phenomenon observed in several disorders such as diabetic foot, critical limb ischemia and myocardial infarction. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) possess angiogenic potential and have recently emerged as a powerful tool for cell therapy to promote angiogenesis. Although bone marrow-derived MSCs are the primary cell of choice, obtaining them has become a challenge. The placenta has become a popular alternative as it is a highly vascular organ, easily available and ethically more favorable with a rich supply of MSCs. Comparatively, placenta-derived MSCs (PMSCs) are clinically promising due to their proliferative, migratory, clonogenic and immunomodulatory properties. PMSCs release a plethora of cytokines and chemokines key to angiogenic signaling and facilitate the possibility of delivering PMSC-derived exosomes as a targeted therapy to promote angiogenesis. However, there still remains the challenge of heterogeneity in the isolated populations, questions on the maternal or fetal origin of these cells and the diversity in previously reported isolation and culture conditions. Nonetheless, the growing rate of clinical trials using PMSCs clearly indicates a shift in favor of PMSCs. The overall aim of the review is to highlight the importance of this rather poorly understood cell type and emphasize the need for further investigations into their angiogenic potential as an alternative source for therapeutic angiogenesis.
KeywordsPlacental mesenchymal stem cells Stem cells Wound healing Exosomes Secretome Conditioned media Immunomodulation Differentiation potential Ischemia Hypoxia Vasculature Pregnancy Cell based therapy Regenerative medicine Clinical trials
The authors wish to thank the Vice-Chancellor and Registrar, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, India, for extending all the facilities needed to carry out the present work. We would also like to thank Dr. Gopal Pande, Dean SORM, for his continuous guidance and support and Mr. Febin Varghese for his contribution to the graphic work.
Suja A. Mathew: conceived, designed and wrote the paper; Charuta Naik: collected the data and prepared the image; Paul A. Cahill: critical editing and writing of the paper; Ramesh Bhonde: designed and critical editing of the paper.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare no conflict of interest in their study.
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