Purinergic P2Y2 receptors modulate endothelial sprouting
Purinergic P2 receptors are critical regulators of several functions within the vascular system, including platelet aggregation, vascular inflammation, and vascular tone. However, a role for ATP release and P2Y receptor signalling in angiogenesis remains poorly defined. Here, we demonstrate that blood vessel growth is controlled by P2Y2 receptors. Endothelial sprouting and vascular tube formation were significantly dependent on P2Y2 expression and inhibition of P2Y2 using a selective antagonist blocked microvascular network generation. Mechanistically, overexpression of P2Y2 in endothelial cells induced the expression of the proangiogenic molecules CXCR4, CD34, and angiopoietin-2, while expression of VEGFR-2 was decreased. Interestingly, elevated P2Y2 expression caused constitutive phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and VEGFR-2. However, stimulation of cells with the P2Y2 agonist UTP did not influence sprouting unless P2Y2 was constitutively expressed. Finally, inhibition of VEGFR-2 impaired spontaneous vascular network formation induced by P2Y2 overexpression. Our data suggest that P2Y2 receptors have an essential function in angiogenesis, and that P2Y2 receptors present a therapeutic target to regulate blood vessel growth.
KeywordsEndothelial Purinergic Angiogenesis P2Y2 Tip cell Sprouting
The authors thank Johannes Zipperle for isolating human platelets and Regina Grillari for providing Phoenix Ampho cells. This work was funded in part by the European Union’s INTERREG V-A AT-CZ programme (ATCZ133), the City of Vienna Competence Team SignalTissue (#18-08) and by the Austrian Science Fund project SFB-F54. The funding sources have no influence on design and conduct of the study, collection, management, analysis and interpretation of the data, and preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript.
SM performed retroviral infections, spheroid and fibrin matrix assays, flow cytometry, RT-PCR, and immunoprecipitations. SM and KL generated retroviral plasmids. CF and DS performed immunoblotting. SM and KP performed proliferation assays and analyzed iPSC-ECFC in flow cytometry. JP generated the gene array data. CS and JB analyzed gene array data. EP and CH supported the study by providing material. PS, WJ, and HR co-advised the project. SM and WH designed the figures and wrote the manuscript. WH was the lead advisor of this work. All authors read and approved the manuscript.
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Conflict of interest
The authors declare no competing interests.
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