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Comprehensive analysis of circular RNAs in pathological states: biogenesis, cellular regulation, and therapeutic relevance

  • Cornelia BraicuEmail author
  • Andreea-Alina Zimta
  • Diana Gulei
  • Andrei Olariu
  • Ioana Berindan-NeagoeEmail author
Review
  • 208 Downloads

Abstract

Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are members of the non-coding transcriptome; however, some of them are translated into proteins. These transcripts have important roles in both physiological and pathological mechanisms due to their ability to directly influence cellular signaling pathways. Specifically, circRNAs are regulators of transcription, translation, protein interaction, and signal transduction. An increased knowledge within their area is observed over the last few years, concomitant with the development of next-generation sequencing techniques. circRNAs are mostly tissue and disease specific with the ability of specifically changing the biological behavior of cells. The altered expression profile is currently investigated as novel minimally invasive diagnosis/prognosis tool and also therapeutic target in human disease. The diagnosis approach is based on their level modification within pathological states, especially cancer, where circRNAs’ therapies are intensively explored in anti-aging strategies, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and malignant pathologies, and are relying on the restoration of homeostatic profiles.

Keywords

Circular RNA Biogenesis Gene expression regulation Human disease Biomarkers Databases Therapy 

Abbreviations

Ago2

Argonaute 2

circRNAs

Circular RNAs

EGFR

Epidermal growth factor receptor

ElcircRNA

Exon–intron circular RNA

EMT

Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition

fcircRNA

Fusogenic circRNA

lncRNAs

Long non-coding RNAs

m6A

N6-Methyladenosine

miRNAs

MicroRNAs

ncRNAs

Non-coding RNAs

siRNAs

Small interfering RNAs

tricRNAs

tRNA intronic circular RNAs

Notes

Author contributions

CB wrote the paper; A-AZ participated for the introduction part and for figures concept; DG assisted for the table preparation and wrote the final part related to the circulating cirRNAs as biomarkers. AO was responsible for the figure design and for the part related to data-based and programs for circRNAs application. IBN was the design of the study, final correction of the manuscript. All the authors assisted in the preparation of the manuscript and editing and approved the final version of the manuscript.

Funding

This work was supported by a POC Grant, entitled “Clinical and economical impact of personalized targeted anti-microRNA therapies in reconverting lung cancer chemoresistance”-CANTEMIR (project no. 35/01.09.2016, Cod MySMIS 103375) and by PN-III-P1-1.2-PCCDI-2017-0737 (“Genomic mapping of population from polluted area with radioactivity and heavy metals to increase national security-ARTEMIS and PN-III-P2-2.1-PED-2016-0425 (project no 178 PED).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

Authors have no financial and non-financial competing interests to be declared.

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Research Center for Functional Genomics, Biomedicine and Translational Medicine“Iuliu Hatieganu” University of Medicine and PharmacyCluj-NapocaRomania
  2. 2.MEDFUTURE-Research Center for Advanced Medicine“Iuliu Hatieganu” University of Medicine and PharmacyCluj-NapocaRomania
  3. 3.Nordlogic SoftwareCluj-NapocaRomania
  4. 4.Department of Functional Genomics and Experimental Pathology“Prof. Dr. Ion Chiricuta” The Oncology InstituteCluj-NapocaRomania

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