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Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences

, Volume 73, Issue 13, pp 2531–2542 | Cite as

Dissecting the role of microRNAs in prostate cancer metastasis: implications for the design of novel therapeutic approaches

  • Valentina Doldi
  • Marzia Pennati
  • Barbara Forte
  • Paolo Gandellini
  • Nadia Zaffaroni
Review

Abstract

Metastatic prostate cancer is a lethal disease that remains incurable despite the recent approval of new drugs, thus making the development of alternative treatment approaches urgently needed. A more precise understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying prostate cancer dissemination could lead to the identification of novel therapeutic targets for the design of efficient anti-metastatic strategies. MicroRNA (miRNAs) are endogenous, small non-coding RNA molecules acting as key regulators of gene expression at post-transcriptional level. It has been clearly established that altered miRNA expression is a common hallmark of cancer. In addition, emerging evidence suggests their direct involvement in the metastatic cascade. In this review, we present a comprehensive overview of the data generated in experimental tumor models indicating that specific miRNAs may impinge on the different stages of prostate cancer metastasis, including (i) the regulation of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and cell migration/invasion, (ii) the interplay between cancer cells and the surrounding stroma, (iii) the control of angiogenesis, (iv) the regulation of anoikis, and (v) the colonization of distant organs. Moreover, we show preliminary evidence of the clinical relevance of some of these miRNAs, in terms of association with tumor aggressiveness/dissemination and clinical outcome, as emerged from translation studies carried out in prostate cancer patient cohorts. We also discuss the potential and the current limitations of manipulating metastasis-related miRNAs, by mimicking or inhibiting them, as a strategy for the development of novel therapeutic approaches for the advanced disease.

Keywords

MicroRNA Metastasis Prostate cancer Therapeutic targets 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The work in the authors’ laboratory was supported by grants from the Associazione Italiana per la Ricerca sul Cancro (AIRC), Projects #11542 (PG) and #12162 (NZ), and the I. Monzino Foundation (NZ).

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Valentina Doldi
    • 1
  • Marzia Pennati
    • 1
  • Barbara Forte
    • 1
  • Paolo Gandellini
    • 1
  • Nadia Zaffaroni
    • 1
  1. 1.Molecular Pharmacology Unit, Department of Experimental Oncology and Molecular MedicineFondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei TumoriMilanItaly

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