Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences

, Volume 72, Issue 14, pp 2677–2695 | Cite as

Lipid droplet dynamics in budding yeast

Review

Abstract

Eukaryotic cells store excess fatty acids as neutral lipids, predominantly triacylglycerols and sterol esters, in organelles termed lipid droplets (LDs) that bulge out from the endoplasmic reticulum. LDs are highly dynamic and contribute to diverse cellular functions. The catabolism of the storage lipids within LDs is channeled to multiple metabolic pathways, providing molecules for energy production, membrane building blocks, and lipid signaling. LDs have been implicated in a number of protein degradation and pathogen infection processes. LDs may be linked to prevalent human metabolic diseases and have marked potential for biofuel production. The knowledge accumulated on LDs in recent years provides a foundation for diverse, and even unexpected, future research. This review focuses on recent advances in LD research, emphasizing the diverse physiological roles of LDs in the model system of budding yeast.

Keywords

Endoplasmic reticulum Triacylglycerol Sterol ester Phospholipid Membrane Metabolism 

Abbreviations

ACAT

Acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase

ATGL

Adipose triacylglyceride lipase

CCT

CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase

CoA

Coenzyme A

CDP-DAG

Cytidine diphosphate-diacylglycerol

CTP

Cytidine triphosphate

DAG

Diacylglycerol

DGAT

Acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase

ER

Endoplasmic reticulum

ERAD

ER-associated protein degradation

FA

Fatty acid

FIT

Fat-inducing transcript

GPAT

Glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase

LD

Lipid droplet

lyso-PA

1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate

MAG

Monoacylglycerol

PA

Phosphatidic acid

PAP

Phosphatidate phosphatase

PC

Phosphatidylcholine

PE

Phosphatidylethanolamine

PI

Phosphatidylinositol

PS

Phosphatidylserine

SE

Sterol ester

TAG

Triacylglycerol

Notes

Acknowledgments

I thank Dr. Rey-Huei Chen at the Institute of Molecular Biology, Academia Sinica, for reading the manuscript and her helpful commentary and Miss Yu-Chun Weng at the Institute of Plant and Microbial Biology, Academia Sinica, for help with art and design work. This work was supported by an intramural fund from Academia Sinica and the grants NSC 101-2311-B-001-028-MY3 and 103-2633-B-001-003 from the Ministry of Science and Technology, Taiwan.

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© Springer Basel 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Plant and Microbial BiologyAcademia SinicaTaipeiTaiwan

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