Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences

, Volume 72, Issue 13, pp 2475–2489 | Cite as

Inflammation: a culprit for vascular calcification in atherosclerosis and diabetes

Review

Abstract

It is today acknowledged that aging is associated with a low-grade chronic inflammatory status, and that inflammation exacerbates age-related diseases such as osteoporosis, Alzheimer’s disease, atherosclerosis and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Vascular calcification is a complication that also occurs during aging, in particular in association with atherosclerosis and T2DM. Recent studies provided compelling evidence that vascular calcification is associated with inflammatory status and is enhanced by inflammatory cytokines. In the present review, we propose on one hand to highlight the most important and recent findings on the cellular and molecular mechanisms of vascular inflammation in atherosclerosis and T2DM. On the other hand, we will present the effects of inflammatory mediators on the trans-differentiation of vascular smooth muscle cell and on the deposition of crystals. Since vascular calcification significantly impacts morbidity and mortality in affected individuals, a better understanding of its induction and development will pave the way to develop new therapeutic strategies.

Keywords

Vascular smooth muscle cells Chondrocytes TNF-α IL-1β Inflammasome 

Abbreviations

ANKH

Ankylosis protein homolog

BMP

Bone morphogenetic protein

CAC

Coronary artery calcification

CKD

Chronic kidney disease

CRP

C-reactive protein

ECM

Extracellular matrix

ENPP1

Ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase phosphodiesterase 1

FDG

Fluorodeoxyglucose

GACI

Generalized arterial calcification in infancy

HIF

Hypoxia inducible factor

HPGS

Hutchinson–Gilford progeria syndrome

IFN

Interferon

IL-1Ra

Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist

MGP

Matrix Gla protein

MMP

Matrix metalloprotease

MVs

Matrix vesicles

NLRP3

NOD-like receptor family, pyrin domain containing 3

PET

Positron emission tomography

PPi

Inorganic pyrophosphate

T2DM

Type 2 diabetes mellitus

VSMCs

Vascular smooth muscle cells

TNAP

Tissue nonspecific alkaline phosphatase

TNF

Tumor necrosis factor

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© Springer Basel 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of Lyon, ICBMS UMR CNRS 5246Villeurbanne CedexFrance

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