Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences

, Volume 72, Issue 10, pp 1907–1929 | Cite as

Exogenous enzymes upgrade transgenesis and genetic engineering of farm animals

  • Pablo Bosch
  • Diego O. Forcato
  • Fabrisio E. Alustiza
  • Ana P. Alessio
  • Alejandro E. Fili
  • María F. Olmos Nicotra
  • Ana C. Liaudat
  • Nancy Rodríguez
  • Thirumala R. Talluri
  • Wilfried A. Kues
Review

Abstract

Transgenic farm animals are attractive alternative mammalian models to rodents for the study of developmental, genetic, reproductive and disease-related biological questions, as well for the production of recombinant proteins, or the assessment of xenotransplants for human patients. Until recently, the ability to generate transgenic farm animals relied on methods of passive transgenesis. In recent years, significant improvements have been made to introduce and apply active techniques of transgenesis and genetic engineering in these species. These new approaches dramatically enhance the ease and speed with which livestock species can be genetically modified, and allow to performing precise genetic modifications. This paper provides a synopsis of enzyme-mediated genetic engineering in livestock species covering the early attempts employing naturally occurring DNA-modifying proteins to recent approaches working with tailored enzymatic systems.

Keywords

Active transgenesis Livestock Binary transposon system Designer nuclease Recombinase Integrase Synthetic biology 

Abbreviations

Cas9

CRISPR-associated protein 9

CPI

Cytoplasmic injection

Ct

Chromatin transfer

CRISPR

Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats

DSB

Double-strand break

GOI

Gene of interest

HR

Homologous recombination

HDR

Homology-directed repair

ICSI

Intracytoplasmic sperm injection

ICSI-Tr

Intracytoplasmic sperm injection-mediated transgenesis

iPS

Induced pluripotent stem (cell)

I-SceI

Homing endonuclease

ITR

Inverted terminal repeat

KO

Knockout

NHEJ

Non-homologous end joining

PB

piggyBac transposon system

PNI

Pronuclear injection

RE

Restriction enzyme

RecA

Recombinase A

REMI

Restriction enzyme-mediated integration

RMCE

Recombinase-mediated cassette exchange

RMDI

Recombinase-mediated DNA insertion

SB

Sleeping Beauty transposon system

SCNT

Somatic cell nuclear transfer

sgRNA

Single-guide RNA

SMGT

Sperm-mediated gene transfer

SV40

Simian virus 40

TALEN

Transcription activator-like element nuclease

Tol2

Tol2 transposon system

ZFN

Zinc finger nuclease

Notes

Acknowledgments

Authors acknowledge the financial support from CONICET, FONCyT, UNRC (Republica Argentina), ICAR (India), as well as from DAAD and DFG (Germany).

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Copyright information

© Springer Basel 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pablo Bosch
    • 1
  • Diego O. Forcato
    • 1
  • Fabrisio E. Alustiza
    • 1
  • Ana P. Alessio
    • 1
  • Alejandro E. Fili
    • 1
  • María F. Olmos Nicotra
    • 1
  • Ana C. Liaudat
    • 1
  • Nancy Rodríguez
    • 1
  • Thirumala R. Talluri
    • 2
  • Wilfried A. Kues
    • 2
  1. 1.Departamento de Biología Molecular, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Fco-Qcas y NaturalesUniversidad Nacional de Río CuartoRío CuartoRepublic of Argentina
  2. 2.Friedrich-Loeffler-InstituteInstitute of Farm Animal Genetics, BiotechnologyNeustadtGermany

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