Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences

, Volume 72, Issue 6, pp 1095–1113

Microscale imaging of cilia-driven fluid flow


DOI: 10.1007/s00018-014-1784-z

Cite this article as:
Huang, B.K. & Choma, M.A. Cell. Mol. Life Sci. (2015) 72: 1095. doi:10.1007/s00018-014-1784-z


Cilia-driven fluid flow is important for multiple processes in the body, including respiratory mucus clearance, gamete transport in the oviduct, right–left patterning in the embryonic node, and cerebrospinal fluid circulation. Multiple imaging techniques have been applied toward quantifying ciliary flow. Here, we review common velocimetry methods of quantifying fluid flow. We then discuss four important optical modalities, including light microscopy, epifluorescence, confocal microscopy, and optical coherence tomography, that have been used to investigate cilia-driven flow.


Microfluidic flow Mucus Velocimetry Particle tracking Digital particle image velocimetry Confocal microscopy Fluorescence microscopy Optical coherence tomography 

Copyright information

© Springer Basel 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Biomedical EngineeringYale UniversityNew HavenUSA
  2. 2.Department of Diagnostic RadiologyYale School of MedicineNew HavenUSA
  3. 3.Department of PediatricsYale School of MedicineNew HavenUSA
  4. 4.Department of Applied PhysicsYale UniversityNew HavenUSA

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