Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences

, Volume 72, Issue 6, pp 1095–1113 | Cite as

Microscale imaging of cilia-driven fluid flow

Review

Abstract

Cilia-driven fluid flow is important for multiple processes in the body, including respiratory mucus clearance, gamete transport in the oviduct, right–left patterning in the embryonic node, and cerebrospinal fluid circulation. Multiple imaging techniques have been applied toward quantifying ciliary flow. Here, we review common velocimetry methods of quantifying fluid flow. We then discuss four important optical modalities, including light microscopy, epifluorescence, confocal microscopy, and optical coherence tomography, that have been used to investigate cilia-driven flow.

Keywords

Microfluidic flow Mucus Velocimetry Particle tracking Digital particle image velocimetry Confocal microscopy Fluorescence microscopy Optical coherence tomography 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We thank Ute Gamm for her useful feedback. This work was supported by a March of Dimes Basil O’Connor Starter Scholar Research Award and NIH 1R01HL118419-01. BKH also was supported by NIH MSTP TG T32GM07205.

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Copyright information

© Springer Basel 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Biomedical EngineeringYale UniversityNew HavenUSA
  2. 2.Department of Diagnostic RadiologyYale School of MedicineNew HavenUSA
  3. 3.Department of PediatricsYale School of MedicineNew HavenUSA
  4. 4.Department of Applied PhysicsYale UniversityNew HavenUSA

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