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Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences

, Volume 72, Issue 4, pp 659–671 | Cite as

Formation and role of exosomes in cancer

  • Lindsey T. Brinton
  • Hillary S. Sloane
  • Mark Kester
  • Kimberly A. KellyEmail author
Review

Abstract

Exosomes offer new insight into cancer biology with both diagnostic and therapeutic implications. Because of their cell-to-cell communication, exosomes influence tumor progression, metastasis, and therapeutic efficacy. They can be isolated from blood and other bodily fluids to reveal disease processes occurring within the body, including cancerous growth. In addition to being a reservoir of cancer biomarkers, they can be re-engineered to reinstate tumor immunity. Tumor exosomes interact with various cells of the microenvironment to confer tumor-advantageous changes that are responsible for stromal activation, induction of the angiogenic switch, increased vascular permeability, and immune escape. Exosomes also contribute to metastasis by aiding in the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and formation of the pre-metastatic niche. Furthermore, exosomes protect tumor cells from the cytotoxic effects of chemotherapy drugs and transfer chemoresistance properties to nearby cells. Thus, exosomes are essential to many lethal elements of cancer and it is important to understand their biogenesis and role in cancer.

Keywords

Signaling Immunosurveillance Fibroblast Targeted therapy Multivesicular endosome Vaccine ESCRT Biogenesis 

Abbreviations

MVE

Multivesicular endosome

ESCRT

Endosomal-sorting complexes required for transport

MDSC

Myeloid-derived suppressor cells

EMT

Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition

HIF

Hypoxia-inducible factor

GM-CSF

Granulocyte–macrophage colony-stimulating factor

ASC

Adipose stem cell

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Copyright information

© Springer Basel 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lindsey T. Brinton
    • 1
    • 2
  • Hillary S. Sloane
    • 3
  • Mark Kester
    • 4
  • Kimberly A. Kelly
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Biomedical EngineeringUniversity of VirginiaCharlottesvilleUSA
  2. 2.Robert M. Berne Cardiovascular Research CenterUniversity of Virginia School of MedicineCharlottesvilleUSA
  3. 3.Department of ChemistryUniversity of VirginiaCharlottesvilleUSA
  4. 4.Department of PharmacologyUniversity of Virginia School of MedicineCharlottesvilleUSA

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