What does genetics tell us about imprinting and the placenta connection?
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- Varmuza, S. & Miri, K. Cell. Mol. Life Sci. (2015) 72: 51. doi:10.1007/s00018-014-1714-0
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Genomic imprinting is an epigenetic gene silencing phenomenon that is specific to eutherians in the vertebrate lineage. The acquisition of both placentation and genomic imprinting has spurred interest in the possible evolutionary link for many years. In this review we examine the genetic evidence and find that while many imprinted domains are anchored by genes required for proper placenta development in a parent of origin fashion, an equal number of imprinted genes have no apparent function that depends on imprinting. Examination of recent data from studies of molecular and genetic mechanisms points to a maternal control of the selection and maintenance of imprint marks, reinforcing the importance of the oocyte in the healthy development of the placenta and fetus.