Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences

, Volume 71, Issue 6, pp 1033–1043

B Lymphocytes in obesity-related adipose tissue inflammation and insulin resistance

  • Daniel A. Winer
  • Shawn Winer
  • Melissa H. Y. Chng
  • Lei Shen
  • Edgar G. Engleman
Review

Abstract

Obesity-related insulin resistance is a chronic inflammatory condition that often gives rise to type 2 diabetes (T2D). Much evidence supports a role for pro-inflammatory T cells and macrophages in promoting local inflammation in tissues such as visceral adipose tissue (VAT) leading to insulin resistance. More recently, B cells have emerged as an additional critical player in orchestrating these processes. B cells infiltrate VAT and display functional and phenotypic changes in response to diet-induced obesity. B cells contribute to insulin resistance by presenting antigens to T cells, secreting inflammatory cytokines, and producing pathogenic antibodies. B cell manipulation represents a novel approach to the treatment of obesity-related insulin resistance and potentially to the prevention of T2D. This review summarizes the roles of B cells in governing VAT inflammation and the mechanisms by which these cells contribute to altered glucose homeostasis in insulin resistance.

Keywords

Insulin resistance Type 2 diabetes B lymphocytes Inflammation Autoimmunity Macrophages T cells 

Abbreviations

T2D

Type 2 diabetes

VAT

Visceral adipose tissues

FALC

Fat-associated lymphoid cluster

oxLDL

Oxidized low-density lipoprotein

CSR

Class switch recombination

SHM

Somatic hypermutation

HFD

High-fat diet

BCR

B cell receptor

CLS

Crown-like structure

DIO

Diet-induced obese

GOSR1

Golgi SNAP receptor complex member 1

GFAP

Glial fibrillary acidic protein

BAFF

B-cell activating factor

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Copyright information

© Springer Basel 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Daniel A. Winer
    • 1
    • 2
  • Shawn Winer
    • 1
    • 2
  • Melissa H. Y. Chng
    • 3
  • Lei Shen
    • 3
  • Edgar G. Engleman
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Pathology, Toronto General HospitalUniversity Health Network, University of TorontoTorontoCanada
  2. 2.Division of Cellular and Molecular Biology, Diabetes Research Group, Toronto General Research Institute (TGRI)University Health Network, University of TorontoTorontoCanada
  3. 3.Department of PathologyStanford University School of MedicinePalo AltoUSA

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