Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences

, Volume 70, Issue 13, pp 2351–2365 | Cite as

Body size regulation and insulin-like growth factor signaling

Review

Abstract

How animals achieve their specific body size is a fundamental, but still largely unresolved, biological question. Over the past decades, studies on the insect model system have provided some important insights into the process of body size determination and highlighted the importance of insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling. Fat body, the Drosophila counterpart of liver and adipose tissue, senses nutrient availability and controls larval growth rate by modulating peripheral insulin signaling. Similarly, insulin-like growth factor I produced from liver and muscle promotes postnatal body growth in mammals. Organismal growth is tightly coupled with the process of sexual maturation wherein the sex steroid hormone attenuates body growth. This review summarizes some important findings from Drosophila and mammalian studies that shed light on the general mechanism of animal size determination.

Keywords

Body size Insulin signaling IGF-1 Growth hormone Sexual maturation Steroid hormone Fat body MicroRNA 

Notes

Acknowledgments

I apologize to the authors whose publications have not been cited due to space limitations. I thank Dr. Yoosik Kim, Dr. Sunhoe Bang, Wonho Kim, Sekyu Choi, and Gang Jun Lee for critical reading of the manuscript. This research was supported by the Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (2012R1A1A1009732 to S.H.).

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© Springer Basel 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Biological SciencesChung-Ang UniversitySeoulKorea

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