Mesenchymal stem cells and neural crest stem cells from adult bone marrow: characterization of their surprising similarities and differences
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The generation of neuronal cells from stem cells obtained from adult bone marrow is of significant clinical interest in order to design new cell therapy protocols for several neurological disorders. The recent identification in adult bone marrow of stem cells derived from the neural crest stem cells (NCSC) might explain the neuronal phenotypic plasticity shown by bone marrow cells. However, little information is available about the nature of these cells compared to mesenchymal stem cells (MSC), including their similarities and differences. In this paper, using transcriptomic as well as proteomic technologies, we compared NCSC to MSC and stromal nestin-positive cells, all of them isolated from adult bone marrow. We demonstrated that the nestin-positive cell population, which was the first to be described as able to differentiate into functional neurons, was a mixed population of NCSC and MSC. More interestingly, we demonstrated that MSC shared with NCSC the same ability to truly differentiate into Tuj1-positive cells when co-cultivated with paraformaldehyde-fixed cerebellar granule neurons. Altogether, those results suggest that both NCSC and MSC can be considered as important tools for cellular therapies in order to replace neurons in various neurological diseases.
KeywordsNeural crest stem cells Mesenchymal stem cells Adult bone marrow Cell fate Microarray
This work was supported by a grant from the Fonds National de la Recherche Scientifique (FNRS) of Belgium, by a grant of the Action de Recherche Concertée de la Communauté Française de Belgique, by the Belgian League against Multiple Sclerosis associated with the Leon Fredericq Foundation, and by the Swiss National Science Foundation. P.L. is a senior research associate of the FNRS. A.G. is a Marie Curie Host Fellow for Early Stage Research Training, EURON 020589 within the 6th FP of the EU, Marie Curie Actions - Human Resources and Mobility. Normalization and data filtering were performed using BRB-ArrayTools software version 3.8.1 developed by Dr. Richard Simons and BRB-ArrayTools Development Team http://linus.nci.nih.gov./BRB-ArrayTools.html. Patricia Ernst and Alice Marquet also provided technical assistance to this study. Finally, we would like to thanks Professor Vincent Seutin who gave us the opportunity to use his electrophysiological platform. Finally, we would like to thanks Dr Ormenese and the GIGA plateform of flow cytometry and cell imaging for their valuable advises and technical support.
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