Morphological and functional characterization of leech circulating blood cells: role in immunity and neural repair
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Unlike most invertebrates, annelids possess a closed vascular system distinct from the coelomic liquid. The morphology and the function of leech blood cells are reported here. We have demonstrated the presence of a unique cell type which participates in various immune processes. In contrast to the mammalian spinal cord, the leech CNS is able to regenerate and restore function after injury. The close contact of the blood with the nerve cord also led us to explore the participation of blood in neural repair. Our data evidenced that, in addition to exerting peripheral immune functions, leech blood optimizes CNS neural repair through the release of neurotrophic substances. Circulating blood cells also appeared able to infiltrate the injured CNS where, in conjunction with microglia, they limit the formation of a scar. In mammals, CNS injury leads to the generation of a glial scar that blocks the mechanism of regeneration by preventing axonal regrowth. The results presented here constitute the first description of neuroimmune functions of invertebrate blood cells. Understanding the basic function of the peripheral circulating cells and their interactions with lesioned CNS in the leech would allow us to acquire insights into the complexity of the neuroimmune response of the injured mammalian brain.
KeywordsBlood Annelid Invertebrate Immunity Neural repair Central nervous system Antimicrobial peptide
The authors are indebted to Loic Brunet for access to the Cellular Imaging Center (CCMIC, USTL, Lille 1, France) and for his help in acquiring pictures. We also thank Dr Maxence Wisztorski for assistance in mass spectrometry analysis. This work was supported by the Centre National de la Recherche scientifique (CNRS) and the Ministère de l’Enseignement, de la Recherche et des Technologies.
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