Lipid complexes with cationic peptides and OAKs; their role in antimicrobial action and in the delivery of antimicrobial agents

Multi-author review

Abstract

Antimicrobial agents are toxic to bacteria by a variety of mechanisms. One mechanism that is very dependent on the lipid composition of the bacterial membrane is the clustering of anionic lipid by cationic antimicrobial agents. Certain species of oligo-acyl-lysine (OAK) antimicrobial agents are particularly effective in clustering anionic lipids in mixtures mimicking the composition of bacterial membranes. The clustering of anionic lipids by certain cationic antimicrobial agents contributes to the anti-bacterial action of these agents. Bacterial membrane lipids are a determining factor, resulting in some species of bacteria being more susceptible than others. In addition, lipids can be used to increase the effectiveness of antimicrobial agents when administered in vivo. Therefore, we review some of the structures in which lipid mixtures can assemble, to more effectively be utilized as antimicrobial delivery systems. We describe in more detail the complexes formed between mixtures of lipids mimicking bacterial membranes and an OAK and their usefulness in synergizing with antibiotics to overcome bacterial multidrug resistance.

Keywords

Antimicrobial peptides Drug delivery Synergistic action Cochleates Multidrug resistance 

Abbreviations

ABC

ATP-binding cassette

DMPC

Dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine

DMPG

Dimyristoyl phosphatidylglycerol

DMPE

Dimyristoyl phosphatidylethanolamine

DOPE

Dioleoyl phosphatidylethanolamine

DOPS

Dioleoyl phosphatidylserine

EM

Electron microscopy

MDR

Multidrug resistant

MIC

Minimum inhibitory concentration

MLVs

Multilamellar vesicles

OAK

Oligo-acyl-lysine

PC

Phosphatidylcholine

PE

Phosphatidylethanolamine

PEG-PE

Polyethylene glycol linked covalently to the amino group of PE

POPE

1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl phosphatidylethanolamine

PS

Phosphatidylserine

RND

Resistance-nodulation-division

TMCL

Tetramyristoyl cardiolipin

TOCL

Tetraoleoyl cardiolipin

Copyright information

© Springer Basel AG 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Raquel F. Epand
    • 1
  • Amram Mor
    • 2
  • Richard M. Epand
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Biochemistry and Biomedical SciencesMcMaster UniversityHamiltonCanada
  2. 2.Department of Biotechnology and Food EngineeringTechnion-Israel Institute of TechnologyHaifaIsrael

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