Multifunctional cationic host defence peptides and their clinical applications

  • Amy T. Y. Yeung
  • Shaan L. Gellatly
  • Robert E. W. Hancock
Multi-author review

Abstract

With the rapid rise in the emergence of bacterial strains resistant to multiple classes of antimicrobial agents, there is an urgent need to develop novel antimicrobial therapies to combat these pathogens. Cationic host defence peptides (HDPs) and synthetic derivatives termed innate defence regulators (IDRs) represent a promising alternative approach in the treatment of microbial-related diseases. Cationic HDPs (also termed antimicrobial peptides) have emerged from their origins as nature’s antibiotics and are widely distributed in organisms from insects to plants to mammals and non-mammalian vertebrates. Although their original and primary function was proposed to be direct antimicrobial activity against bacteria, fungi, parasites and/or viruses, cationic HDPs are becoming increasingly recognized as multifunctional mediators, with both antimicrobial activity and diverse immunomodulatory properties. Here we provide an overview of the antimicrobial and immunomodulatory activities of cationic HDPs, and discuss their potential application as beneficial therapeutics in overcoming infectious diseases.

Keywords

Host defence peptide Antimicrobial Immunomodulatory Immunity Infection Therapeutics Chemoattractant Inflammation 

Abbreviations

AMP

Antimicrobial peptide

BMAP-27

Bovine myeloid antimicrobial peptide 27

CPP

Cell-penetrating peptide

CRAMP

Cathelin-related antimicrobial peptide

CXCR4

Chemokine receptor 4

hBD-1

Human beta-defensin 1

HDP

Host defence peptide

hLF

Human lactoferrin

IDR

Innate defence regulator

IL-10

Interleukin 10

PMAP-23

Porcine myeloid antimicrobial peptide 23

LL37

Human cathelicidin (aka hCAP18)

LPS

Lipopolysaccharide

LTA

Lipoteichoic acid

MIC

Minimum inhibitory concentration

MX-226

Migenix 226 (aka Omeganan)

TAT

Trans-activating transcriptional factor (aka Tat)

TNFα

Tumor necrosis factor alpha

TNFAIP3

Tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced protein 3 (aka A20)

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Copyright information

© Springer Basel AG 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Amy T. Y. Yeung
    • 1
  • Shaan L. Gellatly
    • 1
  • Robert E. W. Hancock
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Centre for Microbial Diseases and Immunity ResearchUniversity of British ColumbiaVancouverCanada

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