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Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences

, Volume 68, Issue 9, pp 1623–1631 | Cite as

The crystalline phase of cellulose changes under developmental control in a marine chordate

  • Keisuke NakashimaEmail author
  • Atsuo Nishino
  • Yoshiki Horikawa
  • Euichi Hirose
  • Junji Sugiyama
  • Nori Satoh
Research Article

Abstract

The native form of cellulose is a fibrillar composite of two crystalline phases, the triclinic Iα and monoclinic Iβ allomorphs. Allomorph ratios are species-specific, and this gives rise to natural structural variations in cellulose crystals. However, the mechanisms contributing to crystal formation remain unknown. We show that the two crystalline phases of cellulose are tailored to distinct structures during different developmental stages of the tunicate chordate Oikopleura dioica. Larval cellulose consisting of Iα allomorph constitutes the body cuticle fin, whereas adult cellulose consisting of Iβ allomorph frames a mucous filter-feeding device, the “house.” Both structures are secreted from the epidermis in accordance with the mutually exclusive expression patterns of two distinct putative cellulose synthase genes. We discuss a possible linkage between structural variations of the crystalline phases of cellulose and the underlying evolutionary genetics of cellulose biosynthesis.

Keywords

Cellulose Allomorph Tunicate Appendicularian Oikopleura dioica 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We thank Dr. Tomoya Imai for valuable discussion, Dr. Yutaka Satou for the qPCR facility, Prof. Hiroyuki Yano for the FE-SEM facility, Dr. Fuki Gyoja for sampling Molgula tectiformis, and staff members of the Misaki Marine Biological Station, University of Tokyo, and Seto Marine Biological Station, Kyoto University, for sampling Oikopleura longicauda and Oikopleura dioica, respectively. The nucleotide sequences for the reported genes have been deposited with the GenBank under accession codes AB543594 (Od-CesA1) and AB543593 (Od-CesA2). K.N. designed research, performed experiments, and wrote the manuscript. A.N. performed collection, culture, and preparation of appendicularians. Y.H. and J.S. performed electron diffraction and FTIR microscopy. E.H. performed transmission electron microscopy. N.S. supervised reseach. All authors discussed the results and commented on the manuscript. The authors declare no competing financial interests. This work was supported by Grants-in-Aid for Young Scientists to K.N. (no. 18770046 and 21780166) and Grant-in-Aid to N.S. (no. 17018018) from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) of Japan. This work was also partly supported by Intellectual Cluster Formation of Okinawa Prefecture, Japan.

Supplementary material

18_2010_556_MOESM1_ESM.doc (30 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOC 29 kb)
18_2010_556_MOESM2_ESM.pdf (221 kb)
Supplementary material 2 (PDF 221 kb)
18_2010_556_MOESM3_ESM.pdf (441 kb)
Supplementary material 3 (PDF 440 kb)

Supplementary material 4 (MP4 5947 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer Basel AG 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Keisuke Nakashima
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Atsuo Nishino
    • 3
  • Yoshiki Horikawa
    • 4
  • Euichi Hirose
    • 5
  • Junji Sugiyama
    • 4
  • Nori Satoh
    • 1
  1. 1.Marine Genomics UnitOkinawa Institute of Science and Technology Promotion CorporationOkinawaJapan
  2. 2.Department of Zoology, Graduate School of ScienceKyoto UniversityKyotoJapan
  3. 3.Department of Biological Sciences, Graduate School of ScienceOsaka UniversityToyonakaJapan
  4. 4.Research Institute for Sustainable HumanosphereKyoto UniversityUjiJapan
  5. 5.Department of Chemistry, Biology and Marine Science, Faculty of ScienceUniversity of the RyukyusOkinawaJapan

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