Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences

, Volume 67, Issue 24, pp 4185–4196

Translating tissue-engineered tracheal replacement from bench to bedside

  • Madhuri Kalathur
  • Silvia Baiguera
  • Paolo Macchiarini
Review

Abstract

There are a variety of airway diseases with different clinical settings, which may extend from a surgical approach to total organ replacement. Tissue engineering involves modifying cells or tissues in order to repair, regenerate, or replace tissue in the body and seems to be a promising approach for airway replacement. The successful implantation of stem-cell-based tissue-engineered trachea in a young woman with end-stage post-tuberculosis left main bronchus collapse serves as a prototype for the airway tissue-engineered-based approach. The trachea indeed could represent a perfect model system to investigate the translational aspects of tissue engineering, largely due to its low-oxygen needs. This review highlights the anatomy of the airways, the various disease conditions that cause damage to the airways, elaborates on the essential components of the tissue-engineering approach, and discusses the success of the revolutionary trachea transplantation approach.

Keywords

Decellularization In situ tissue engineering Mesenchymal stem cells Regenerative medicine Tissue engineering Trachea Transplantation 

References

  1. 1.
    Des Jardins T (2007) Cardiopulmonary anatomy and physiology: essentials for respiratory care. Delmar, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Fishman AP, Elias JA, Fishman JA, Grippi MA, Senior RM, Pack AI (2008) Fishman’s pulmonary diseases and disorders. McGraw-Hill Professional, ColumbusGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Cardoso WV, Lu J (2006) Regulation of early lung morphogenesis: questions, facts and controversies. Development 133:1611–1624PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Okubo T, Knoepfler PS, Eisenman RN, Hogan BL (2005) Nmyc plays an essential role during lung development as a dosage-sensitive regulator of progenitor cell proliferation and differentiation. Development 132:1363–1374PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kim CF, Jackson EL, Woolfenden AE, Lawrence S, Babar I, Vogel S, Crowley D, Bronson RT, Jacks T (2005) Identification of bronchioalveolar stem cells in normal lung and lung cancer. Cell 121:823–835PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Grillo HC (2002) Tracheal replacement: a critical review. Ann Thorac Surg 73:1995–2004PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Altmayer M, Biancosino C, Strauss J, Macchiarini P (2005) Multiple tracheal stenting or perseverare diabolicum est. J Thorc Cardiovasc Surg 130:223–224Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Campbell KH, McWhir J, Ritchie WA, Wilmut I (1996) Sheep cloned by nuclear transfer from a cultured cell line. Nature 380:64–66PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Cooper DK, Keogh AM, Brink J, Corris PA, Klepetko W, Pierson RN, Schmoeckel M, Shirakura R, Warner Stevenson L, Xenotransplantation Advisory Committee of the International Society for Heart, Lung Transplantation (2000) Report of the Xenotransplantation Advisory Committee of the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation: the present status of xenotransplantation and its potential role in the treatment of end-stage cardiac and pulmonary diseases. J Heart Lung Transplant 12:1125–1165Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Khademhosseini A, Vacanti JP, Langer R (2009) Progress in tissue engineering. Sci Am 300:64–71PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Macchiarini P, Jungebluth P, Go T, Asnaghi MA, Rees LE, Cogan TA, Dodson A, Martorell J, Bellini S, Parnigotto PP, Dickinson SC, Hollander AP, Mantero S, Conconi MT, Birchall MA (2008) Clinical transplantation of a tissue-engineered airway. Lancet 372:2023–2030PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Bader A, Macchiarini P (2010) Moving towards in situ tracheal regeneration: the bionic tissue engineered transplantation approach. J Cell Mol Med doi:10.1111/j.1582-4934.2010.01073.x (in press)
  13. 13.
    Takahashi K, Tanabe K, Ohnuki M, Narita M, Ichisaka T, Tomoda K, Yamanaka S (2007) Induction of pluripotent stem cells from adult human fibroblasts by defined factors. Cell 131:861–872PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kaji K, Norrby K, Paca A, Mileikovsky M, Mohseni P, Woltjen K (2009) Virus-free induction of pluripotency and subsequent excision of reprogramming factors. Nature 458:771–775PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Woltjen K, Michael IP, Mohseni P, Desai R, Mileikovsky M, Hämäläinen R, Cowling R, Wang W, Liu P, Gertsenstein M, Kaji K, Sung HK, Nagy A (2009) piggyBac transposition reprograms fibroblasts to induced pluripotent stem cells. Nature 458:766–770PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Atala A, Bauer SB, Soker S, Yoo JJ, Retik AB (2006) Tissue-engineered autologous bladders for patients needing cystoplasty. Lancet 367:1241–1246PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Pham C, Greenwood J, Cleland H, Woodruff P, Maddern G (2007) Bioengineered skin substitutes for the management of burns: a systematic review. Burns 33:946–957PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Baiguera S, Birchall MA, Macchiarini P (2010) Tissue-engineered tracheal transplantation. Transplantation 89:485–491PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Yamaya M, Finkbeiner WE, Chun SY, Widdicombe JH (1992) Differentiated structure and function of cultures from human tracheal epithelium. Am J Physiol 262:713–724Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Gray TE, Guzman K, Davis CW, Abdullah LH, Nettesheim P (1996) Mucociliary differentiation of serially passaged normal human tracheobronchial epithelial cells. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 14:104–112PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Yoon JH, Kim KS, Kim SS, Lee JG, Park IY (2000) Secretory differentiation of serially passaged normal human nasal epithelial cells by retinoic acid: expression of mucin and lysozyme. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 109(6):594–601PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Sachs LA, Finkbeiner WE, Widdicombe JH (2003) Effects of media on differentiation of cultured human tracheal epithelium. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Anim 39:56–62PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Gray TE, Guzman K, Davis CW, Abdullah LH, Nettesheim P (1996) Mucociliary differentiation of serially passaged normal human tracheobronchial epithelial cells. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 14(1):104–112PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Pfenninger C, Leinhase I, Endres M, Rotter N, Loch A, Ringe J, Sittinger M (2007) Tracheal remodeling: comparison of different composite cultures consisting of human respiratory epithelial cells and human chondrocytes. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Anim 43:28–36PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Rees LE, Gunasekaran S, Sipaul F, Birchall MA, Bailey M (2006) The isolation and characterisation of primary human laryngeal epithelial cells. Mol Immunol 43:725–730PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Baiguera S, Macchiarini P (2009) Trachea in regenerative medicine—from protocol to patient. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New YorkGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Randell SH (2006) Airway epithelial stem cells and the pathophysiology of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Proc Am Thorac Soc 3:718–725PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Rawlins EL, Hogan BL (2006) Epithelial stem cells of the lung: privileged few or opportunities for many? Development 133:2455–2465PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Rawlins EL, Hogan BL (2008) Ciliated epithelial cell lifespan in the mouse trachea and lung. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 2915:L231–L234Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Prockop DJ (1997) Marrow stem cells as stem cells for nonhematopoietic tissues. Science 276:71–74PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Bianco P, Riminacci M, Grathos S, Robey PG (2001) Bone marrow stromal stem cells. Nature, biology, and potential applications. Stem Cells 19:180–192PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Dennis JE, Chabord P (2002) Origin and differentiation of human and murine stroma. Stem Cells 20:205–214PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Minguell JJ, Erices A, Conget P (2003) Mesenchymal stem cells. Exp Biol Med 226:507–520Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Noth U, Tuli R, Osyczka AM, Danielson KG, Tuan RS (2002) In vitro engineered cartilage constructs produced by press-coating biodegradable polymer with human mesenchymal stem cells. Tissue Eng 8:131–144PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Kunisaki SM, Freedman DA, Fauza DO (2006) Fetal tracheal reconstruction with cartilaginous grafts engineered from mesenchymal amniocytes. J Pediatr Surg 41:675–682PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Tsutsumi S, Shimazu A, Miyazaki K, Pan H, Koike C, Yoshida E, Takagishi K, Kato Y (2001) Retention of multilineage differentiation potential of mesenchymal cells during proliferation in response to FGF. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 288(2):413–419PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Bianchi G, Banfi A, Mastrogiacomo M, Notaro R, Notaro R, Luzzatto L, Cancedda R, Quarto R (2003) Ex vivo enrichment of mesenchymal cell progenitors by fibroblast growth factor 2. Exp Cell Res 287:98–105PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Nehrer S, Spector M, Minas T (1999) Histologic analysis of tissue after failed cartilage repair procedures. Clin Orthop Relat Res 365:149–162PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Hedbom E, Antonsson P, Hjerpe A, Aeschlimann D, Paulsson M, Rosa-Pimentel E, Sommarin Y, Wendel M, Oldberg A, Heinegård D (1992) Cartilage matrix proteins. An acidic oligomeric protein (COMP) detected only in cartilage. J Biol Chem 267(9):6132–6136PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Mastrogiacomo M, Cancedda R, Quarto R (2001) Effect of different growth factors on the chondrogenic potential of human bone marrow stromal cells. Osteoarthr Cartil 9(Suppl A):S36–S40PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Solchaga LA, Penick K, Porter JD, Goldberg VM, Caplan AI, Welter JF (2005) FGF-2 enhances the mitotic and chondrogenic potentials of human adult bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells. J Cell Physiol 203(2):398–409PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Kafienah W, Mistry S, Williams C, Hollander AP (2006) Nucleostemin is a marker of proliferating stromal stem cells in adult human bone marrow. Stem Cells 24:113–120Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Johnstone B, Hering TM, Caplan AI, Goldberg VM, Yoo JU (1998) In vitro chondrogenesis of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal progenitor cells. Exp Cell Res 238:265–272PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Kafienah W, Mistry S, Dickinson SC, Sims TJ, Learmonth I, Hollander AP (2007) Three-dimensional cartilage tissue engineering using adult stem cells from osteoarthritis patients. Arthritis Rheum 56:177–187PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Doss AE, Dunn SS, Kucera KA, Clemson LA, Zwischenberger JB (2007) Tracheal replacements: part 2. ASAIO J 53:631–639PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Kojima K, Bonassar LJ, Roy AK, Vacanti CA, Cortiella J (2002) Autologous tissue-engineered trachea with sheep nasal chondrocytes. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 123:1177–1184PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Wu W, Feng X, Mao T, Feng X, Ouyang HW, Zhao G, Chen F (2007) Engineering of human tracheal tissue with collagen-enforced poly-lactic-glycolic acid non-woven mesh: a preliminary study in nude mice. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg 45:272–278PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Komura M, Komura H, Kanamori Y, Tanaka Y, Suzuki K, Sugiyama M, Nakahara S, Kawashima H, Hatanaka A, Hoshi K, Ikada Y, Tabata Y, Iwanaka T (2008) An animal model study for tissue-engineered trachea fabricated from a biodegradable scaffold using chondrocytes to augment repair of tracheal stenosis. J Pediatr Surg 43:2141–2146PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Lin CH, Su JM, Hsu SH (2008) Evaluation of type II collagen scaffolds reinforced by poly (epsilon-caprolactone) as tissue-engineered trachea. Tissue Eng Part C Methods 14:69–77PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Kim DY, Pyun JH, Choi JW, Kim JH, Lee JS, Shin HA, Kim HJ, Lee HN, Min BH, Cha HE, Kim CH (2010) Tissue-engineered allograft tracheal cartilage using fibrin/hyaluronan composite gel and its in vivo implantation. Laryngoscope 120:30–38PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Wu W, Cheng X, Zhao Y, Chen F, Feng X, Mao T (2007) Tissue engineering of trachea-like cartilage grafts by using chondrocyte macroaggregate: experimental study in rabbits. Artif Organs 31:826–834PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Weidenbecher M, Tucker HM, Awadallah A, Dennis JE (2008) Fabrication of a neotrachea using engineered cartilage. Laryngoscope 118:593–598PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Tani G, Usui N, Kamiyama M, Oue T, Fukuzawa M (2010) In vitro construction of scaffold-free cylindrical cartilage using cell sheet-based tissue engineering. Pediatr Surg Int 26:179–185PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Schmidt CE, Baier JM (2000) Acellular vascular tissues: natural biomaterials for tissue repair and tissue engineering. Biomaterials 21:2215–2231PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Rosso F, Giordano A, Barbarisi M, Barbarisi A (2004) From cell–ECM interactions to tissue engineering. J Cell Physiol 199:174–180PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Behrend M, Kluge E, Von Wasielewski R, Klempnauer J (2002) The mechanical influence of tissue engineering techniques on tracheal strength: an experimental study on sheep trachea. J Invest Surg 15:227–236PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Gilbert TW, Sellaro TL, Badylak SF (2006) Decellularization of tissues and organs. Biomaterials 27:3675–3683PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Gilbert TW, Gilbert S, Madden M, Reynolds SD, Badylak SF (2008) Morphologic assessment of extracellular matrix scaffolds for patch tracheoplasty in a canine model. Ann Thorac Surg 86:967–974PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Meezan E, Hjelle JT, Brendel K (1975) A simple, versatile, non disruptive method for the isolation of morphologically and chemically pure basement membranes from several tissues. Life Sci 17:1721–1732PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Walles T, Giere B, Hofmann M, Schanz J, Hofmann F, Mertsching H, Macchiarini P (2004) Experimental generation of a tissue-engineered functional and vascularized trachea. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 128:900–906PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Conconi MT, De Coppi P, Di Liddo R, Vigolo S, Zanon GF, Parnigotto PP, Nussdorfer GG (2005) Tracheal matrices, obtained by a detergent-enzymatic method, support in vitro the adhesion of chondrocytes and tracheal epithelial cells. Transpl Int 18:727–734PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Jungebluth P, Go T, Asnaghi A, Bellini S, Martorell J, Calore C, Urbani L, Ostertag H, Mantero S, Conconi MT, Macchiarini P (2009) Structural and morphologic evaluation of a novel detergent-enzymatic tissue-engineered tracheal tubular matrix. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 138:586–593PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Asnaghi MA, Jungebluth P, Raimondi MT, Dickinson SC, Rees LE, Go T, Cogan TA, Dodson A, Parnigotto PP, Hollander AP, Birchall MA, Conconi MT, Macchiarini P, Mantero S (2009) A double-chamber rotating bioreactor for the development of tissue-engineered hollow organs: from concept to clinical trial. Biomaterials 30:5260–5269PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Grek CL, Newton DA, Qiu Y, Wen X, Spyropoulos DD, Baatz JE (2009) Characterization of alveolar epithelial cells cultured in semipermeable hollow fibers. Exp Lung Res 35:155–174PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Vunjak-Novakovic G, Martin I, Obradovic B, Treppo S, Grodzinsky AJ, Langer R, Freed LE (1999) Bioreactor cultivation conditions modulate the composition and mechanical properties of tissue-engineered cartilage. J Orthop Res 17(1):130–138PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Tan Q, Hillinger S, van Blitterswijk CA, Weder W (2009) Intra-scaffold continuous medium flow combines chondrocyte seeding and culture systems for tissue engineered trachea construction. Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg 8:27–30PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Lin CH, Hsu SH, Huang CE, Cheng WT, Su JM (2009) A scaffold-bioreactor system for a tissue-engineered trachea. Biomaterials 30:4117–4126PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Weidenbecher M, Tucker HM, Gilpin DA, Dennis JE (2009) Tissue-engineered trachea for airway reconstruction. Laryngoscope 119:2118–2123PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Asnaghi A, Macchiarini P, Mantero S (2009) Tissue engineering toward organ replacement: a promising approach in airway transplant. Int J Artif Organs 32:763–768PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Ikada Y (2006) Challenges in tissue engineering. J R Soc Interface 3(10):589–601PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Nakamura T, Sato T, Araki M, Ichihara S, Nakada A, Yoshitani M, Itoi S, Yamashita M, Kanemaru S, Omori K, Hori Y, Endo K, Inada Y, Hayakawa K (2009) In situ tissue engineering for tracheal reconstruction using a luminar remodelling type of artificial trachea. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 138:811–819PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Seguin A, Radu D, Holder-Espinasse M, Bruneval P, Fialaire-Legendre A, Duterque-Coquillaud M, Carpentier A, Martinod E (2009) Tracheal replacement with cryopreserved, decellularized, or glutaraldehyde-treated aortic allografts. Ann Thorac Surg 87:861–868PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    BBC News (2010) Windpipe transplant success in UK child. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/8576493.stm. Accessed 02 June 2010
  74. 74.
    Faro RS, Goodwin CD, Organ CH Jr, Hall RT, Holder TM, Ashcraft KW, Amoury RA (1979) Tracheal agenesis. Ann Thorac Surg 28:295–299PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Lupi M, Bonetti LR, Trani N, Maccio L, Maiorana A (2009) Congenital tracheal atresia in newborn: case report and review of the literature. Pathologica 101:235–239PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Miller BJ, Morrison MD (1978) Congenital tracheal web-a case report. J Otolaryngol 7:218–222PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Terada M, Hotoda K, Toma M, Hirobe S, Kamagata S (2009) Surgical management of congenital tracheal stenosis. Gen Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 57:175–183PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Bryant R 3rd, Morales DL (2009) Corkscrew trachea: a novel type of congenital tracheal stenosis. Ann Thorac Surg 87:1923–1925PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Wright CD (2003) Tracheomalacia. Chest Surg Clin N Am 13:349–357PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Maldonado JA, Henry T, Gutiérrez FR (2010) Congenital thoracic vascular anomalies. Radiol Clin North Am 48:85–115PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Macchiarini P, Verhoye JP, Chapelier A, Fadel E, Dartevelle P (2000) Evaluation and outcome of different surgical techniques for postintubation tracheoesophageal fistulas. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 119:268–276PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Kay DJ, Mehta V, Goldsmith AJ (2003) Perioperative adenotonsillectomy management in children: current practices. Laryngoscope 113(4):592–597PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Andersen HA, Good CA, Clagett OT (1953) Trachiectasis with tracheocele: report of case in which a tracheocele was resected. Dis Chest 24:553–557PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Fuzesi K, Young DG (1976) Congenital laryngotracheosophageal cleft. J Pediatr Surg 11:933–937PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Sekine I, Kodama T, Yokose T, Nishiwaki Y, Suzuki K, Goto K, Nagai K, Kuriyama T (1998) Rare pulmonary tumors—a review of 32 cases. Oncology 55:431–434PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Hirano T, Franzén B, Kato H, Ebihara Y, Auer G (1994) Genesis of squamous cell lung carcinoma. Sequential changes of proliferation, DNA ploidy, and p53 expression. Am J Pathol 144:296–302PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Wathen CG, Kerr KM, Cowan DL, Douglas AC (1987) Tuberculosis of the trachea. Tubercle 68:225–228PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Karkos PD, Asrani S, Karkos CD, Leong SC, Theochari EG, Alexopoulou TD, Assimakopoulos AD (2009) Lemierre’s syndrome: a systematic review. Laryngoscope 119:1552–1559PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Goldhagen JL (1983) Croup: pathogenesis and management. J Emerg Med 1:3–11PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Seigler RS (1993) Bacterial tracheitis: recognition and treatment. J S C Med Assoc 89:83–87PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Bailhache A, Dehesdin D, François A, Marie JP, Choussy O (2008) Rhinoscleroma of the sinuses. Rhinology 46:338–341PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Chan TV, Spiegel JH (2007) Klebsiella rhinoscleromatis of the membranous nasal septum. J Laryngol Otol 121:998–1002PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Wain JC (2003) Postintubation tracheal stenosis. Chest Surg Clin N Am 13:231–246PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Zias N, Chroneou A, Tabba MK, Gonzalez AV, Gray AW, Lamb CR, Riker DR, Beamis JF Jr (2008) Post tracheostomy and post intubation tracheal stenosis: report of 31 cases and review of the literature. BMC Pulm Med 21(8):18Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Mohan R, Iyer R, Thaller S (2009) Airway management in patients with facial trauma. J Craniofac Surg 20(1):21–23PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Smith DF, Rasmussen S, Peng A, Bagwell C, Johnson C 3rd (2009) Complete traumatic laryngotracheal disruption–a case report and review. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 73(12):1817–1820PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Shlizerman L, Mazzawi S, Rakover Y, Ashkenazi D (2009) Foreign body aspiration in children: the effects of delayed diagnosis. Am J Otolaryngol doi:10.1016/j.amjoto.2009.03.007 (in press)
  98. 98.
    Schilder AM (2010) Wegener’s granulomatosis vasculitis and granuloma. Autoimmun Rev 9:483–487PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Teirstein AT, Morgenthau AS (2009) “End-stage” pulmonary fibrosis in sarcoidosis. Mt Sinai J Med 76:30–36PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Rodrigues K, Neves FS, Stoeterau KB, Werner Castro GR, Nobre LF, Zimmermann AF, Pereira IA (2009) Pulmonary amyloidosis in Sjögren’s syndrome: a rare diagnosis for nodular lung lesions. Int J Rheum Dis 12:358–360PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Karaman E, Duman C, Cansz H, Ylmaz M, Ibrahimov M (2010) Laryngotracheal reconstruction at relapsing polychondritis. J Craniofac Surg 21:211–212PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Grillo HC, Wright CD (2005) Airway obstruction owing to tracheopathia osteoplastica: treatment by linear tracheoplasty. Ann Thorac Surg 79:1676–1681PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Kay EB (1951) Tracheal resection with primary anastomosis. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 60(3):864–870PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Idriss FS, DeLeon SY, Ilbawi MN, Gerson CR, Tucker GF, Holinger L (1984) Tracheoplasty with pericardial patch for extensive tracheal stenosis in infants and children. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 88:527–536PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Tsang V, Murday A, Gillbe C, Goldstraw P (1989) Slide tracheoplasty for congenital funnel-shaped tracheal stenosis. Ann Thorac Surg 48:632–635PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Grillo HC (1994) Slide tracheoplasty for long-segment congenital tracheal stenosis. Ann Thorac Surg 58:613–619PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Elliott MJ, Haw MP, Jacobs JP, Bailey CM, Evans JNG, Herberhold C (1996) Tracheal reconstruction in children using cadaveric homograft trachea. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 10:707–712PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Rose KG, Sesterhenn K, Wustrow F (1979) Tracheal allotransplantation in man. Lancet 1:433PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Genden EM, Urken ML (2003) Laryngotracheal transplantation: ethical limitations. Mt Sinai J Med 70(3):163–165PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Macchiarini P, Walles T, Biancosino C, Mertsching H (2004) First human transplantation of a bioengineered airway tissue. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 128(4):638–641PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Delaere P, Vranckx J, Verleden G, De Leyn P, Van Raemdonck D (2010) Tracheal allotransplantation after withdrawal of immunosuppressive therapy. N Engl J Med 362:138–145PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Basel AG 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Madhuri Kalathur
    • 1
  • Silvia Baiguera
    • 1
  • Paolo Macchiarini
    • 1
  1. 1.BIOAIR Lab, Department of General Thoracic and Regenerative Surgery and Intrathoracic BiotransplantationUniversity Hospital CareggiFlorenceItaly

Personalised recommendations