Control of infection by pyroptosis and autophagy: role of TLR and NLR
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- Bortoluci, K.R. & Medzhitov, R. Cell. Mol. Life Sci. (2010) 67: 1643. doi:10.1007/s00018-010-0335-5
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Cells can die by distinct mechanisms with particular impacts on the immune response. In addition to apoptosis and necrosis, recent studies lead to characterization of a new pro-inflammatory form of cell death, pyroptosis. TLR and NLR, central innate immune sensors, can control infections by modulating host cell survival. In addition, TLRs can promote the induction of autophagy, thus promoting delivery of infecting pathogens to the lysosomes. On the other hand, activation of some NLR members, especially NLRC4 and NAIP5, leads to the infected cell death by pyroptosis, which is accompanied by secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-18, and IL-33. Data presented here illustrate how the compartmentalization of the innate immune sensors can influence the outcome of infections by controlling the fate of host cells.