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Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences

, Volume 67, Issue 1, pp 89–98 | Cite as

Not just angiotensinases: new roles for the angiotensin-converting enzymes

  • Daniel W. Lambert
  • Nicola E. Clarke
  • Anthony J. TurnerEmail author
Review

Abstract

The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is a critical regulator of blood pressure and fluid homeostasis. Angiotensin II, the primary bioactive peptide of the RAS, is generated from angiotensin I by angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE). A homologue of ACE, ACE2, is able to convert angiotensin II to a peptide with opposing effects, angiotensin-(1-7). It is proposed that disturbance of the balance of ACE and ACE2 expression and/or function is important in pathologies in which angiotensin II plays a role. These include cardiovascular and renal disease, lung injury and liver fibrosis. The critical roles of ACE and ACE2 in regulating angiotensin II levels have traditionally focussed attention on their activities as angiotensinases. Recent discoveries, however, have illuminated the roles of these enzymes and of the ACE2 homologue, collectrin, in intracellular trafficking and signalling. This paper reviews the key literature regarding both the catalytic and non-catalytic roles of the angiotensin-converting enzyme gene family.

Keywords

ACE ACE2 Angiotensin Signalling Collectrin 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We thank the U.K. Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council, the Medical Research Council and the British Heart Foundation for support.

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© Birkhäuser Verlag, Basel/Switzerland 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Daniel W. Lambert
    • 1
  • Nicola E. Clarke
    • 2
  • Anthony J. Turner
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Dentistry and HealthUniversity of SheffieldSheffieldUK
  2. 2.Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Faculty of Biological SciencesUniversity of LeedsLeedsUK

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