Protein factors in pre-mRNA 3′-end processing
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- Mandel, C.R., Bai, Y. & Tong, L. Cell. Mol. Life Sci. (2008) 65: 1099. doi:10.1007/s00018-007-7474-3
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Most eukaryotic mRNA precursors (premRNAs) must undergo extensive processing, including cleavage and polyadenylation at the 3′-end. Processing at the 3′-end is controlled by sequence elements in the pre-mRNA (cis elements) as well as protein factors. Despite the seeming biochemical simplicity of the processing reactions, more than 14 proteins have been identified for the mammalian complex, and more than 20 proteins have been identified for the yeast complex. The 3′-end processing machinery also has important roles in transcription and splicing. The mammalian machinery contains several sub-complexes, including cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor, cleavage stimulation factor, cleavage factor I, and cleavage factor II. Additional protein factors include poly(A) polymerase, poly(A)-binding protein, symplekin, and the C-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II largest subunit. The yeast machinery includes cleavage factor IA, cleavage factor IB, and cleavage and polyadenylation factor.