Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences

, Volume 65, Issue 6, pp 862–894 | Cite as

Endoplasmic reticulum stress responses

  • M. Schröder


In homeostasis, cellular processes are in a dynamic equilibrium. Perturbation of homeostasis causes stress. In this review I summarize how perturbation of three major functions of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in eukaryotic cells–protein folding, lipid and sterol biosynthesis, and storing intracellular Ca2+ – causes ER stress and activates signaling pathways collectively termed the unfolded protein response (UPR). I discuss how the UPR reestablishes homeostasis, and summarize our current understanding of how the transition from protective to apoptotic UPR signaling is controlled, and how the UPR induces inflammatory signaling.


Apoptosis Ca2+ store cholesterol endoplasmic reticulum membrane fluidity molecular chaperone protein folding unfolded protein response 


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Copyright information

© Birkhaueser 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Biological and Biomedical SciencesDurham UniversityDurhamUK

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