The metabolism and function of sphingolipids and glycosphingolipids
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- Lahiri, S. & Futerman, A.H. Cell. Mol. Life Sci. (2007) 64: 2270. doi:10.1007/s00018-007-7076-0
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Sphingolipids and glycosphingolipids are emerging as major players in many facets of cell physiology and pathophysiology. We now present an overview of sphingolipid biochemistry and physiology, followed by a brief presentation of recent advances in translational research related to sphingolipids. In discussing sphingolipid biochemistry, we focus on the structure of sphingolipids, and their biosynthetic pathways – the recent identification of most of the enzymes in this pathway has led to significant advances and better characterization of a number of the biosynthetic steps, and the relationship between them. We then discuss some roles of sphingolipids in cell physiology, particularly those of ceramide and sphingosine-1-phosphate, and mention current views about how these lipids act in signal transduction pathways. We end with a discussion of sphingolipids and glycosphingolipids in the etiology and pathology of a number of diseases, such as cancer, immunity, cystic fibrosis, emphysema, diabetes, and sepsis, areas in which sphingolipids are beginning to take a central position, even though many of the details remain to be elucidated.