Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences

, Volume 64, Issue 15, pp 1915–1929 | Cite as

Molecular mechanisms of lymphatic vascular development

  • T. Mäkinen
  • C. Norrmén
  • T. V. PetrovaEmail author


Lymphatic vasculature has recently emerged as a prominent area in biomedical research because of its essential role in the maintenance of normal fluid homeostasis and the involvement in pathogenesis of several human diseases, such as solid tumor metastasis, inflammation and lymphedema. Identification of lymphatic endothelial specific markers and regulators, such as VEGFR-3, VEGF-C/D, PROX1, podoplanin, LYVE-1, ephrinB2 and FOXC2, and the development of mouse models have laid a foundation for our understanding of the major steps controlling growth and remodeling of lymphatic vessels. In this review we summarize recent advances in the field and discuss how this knowledge as well as use of model organisms, such as zebrafish and Xenopus, should allow further in depth analysis of the lymphatic vascular system.


Lymphangiogenesis vascular remodeling PROX1 VEGFR-3 FOXC2 Ephs/ephrins 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Copyright information

© Birkhäuser Verlag, Basel 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Cancer Research UK London Research InstituteLondonUK
  2. 2.Molecular and Cancer Biology Program, Biomedicum HelsinkiUniversity of HelsinkiHelsinkiFinland

Personalised recommendations