Polar transport of the plant hormone auxin – the role of PIN-FORMED (PIN) proteins
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The PIN-FORMED (PIN) protein family is a group of plant transmembrane proteins with a predicted function as secondary transporters. PINs have been shown to play a rate-limiting role in the catalysis of efflux of the plant growth regulator auxin from cells, and their asymmetrical cellular localization determines the direction of cell-to-cell auxin flow. There is a functional redundancy of PINs and their biochemical activity is regulated at many levels. PINs constitute a flexible network underlying the directional auxin flux (polar auxin transport) which provides cells in any part of the plant body with particular positional and temporal information. Thus, the PIN network, together with downstream auxin signalling system(s), coordinates plant development. This review summarizes recent progress in the elucidation of the role of PIN proteins in polar auxin transport at the cellular level, with emphasis on their structure and evolution and regulation of their function.
Keywords.Plant hormone phytohormone plant growth regulator auxin polar auxin transport auxin efflux carriers PIN pin-formed
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