Hairpin RNA: a secondary structure of primary importance
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An RNA hairpin is an essential secondary structure of RNA. It can guide RNA folding, determine interactions in a ribozyme, protect messenger RNA (mRNA) from degradation, serve as a recognition motif for RNA binding proteins or act as a substrate for enzymatic reactions. In this review, we have focused on cis-acting RNA hairpins in metazoa, which regulate histone gene expression, mRNA localization and translation. We also review evolution, mechanism of action and experimental use of trans-acting microRNAs, which are coded by short RNA hairpins. Finally, we discuss the existence and effects of long RNA hairpin in animals. We show that several proteins previously recognized to play a role in a specific RNA stem-loop function in cis were also linked to RNA silencing pathways where a different type of hairpin acts in trans. Such overlaps indicate that the relationship between certain mechanisms that recognize different types of RNA hairpins is closer than previously thought.
Keywords.dsRNA miRNA RNAi stem-loop hairpin localization translation
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