Advertisement

Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences CMLS

, Volume 62, Issue 19–20, pp 2390–2399 | Cite as

Vernix caseosa as a multi-component defence system based on polypeptides, lipids and their interactions

  • M. Tollin
  • G. Bergsson
  • Y. Kai-Larsen
  • J. Lengqvist
  • J. Sjövall
  • W. Griffiths
  • G. V. Skúladóttir
  • Á. Haraldsson
  • H. Jörnvall
  • G. H. Gudmundsson
  • B. Agerberth
Research Article

Abstract.

Vernix caseosa is a white cream-like substance that covers the skin of the foetus and the newborn baby. Recently, we discovered antimicrobial peptides/proteins such as LL-37 in vernix, suggesting host defence functions of vernix. In a proteomic approach, we have continued to characterize proteins in vernix and have identified 20 proteins, plus additional variant forms. The novel proteins identified, considered to be involved in host defence, are cystatin A, UGRP-1, and calgranulin A, B and C. These proteins add protective functions to vernix such as antifungal activity, opsonizing capacity, protease inhibition and parasite inactivation. The composition of the lipids in vernix has also been characterized and among these compounds the free fatty acids were found to exhibit antimicrobial activity. Interestingly, the vernix lipids enhance the antimicrobial activity of LL-37 in vitro, indicating interactions between lipids and antimicrobial peptides in vernix. In conclusion, vernix is a balanced cream of compounds involved in host defence, protecting the foetus and newborn against infection.

Key words.

Antimicrobial activity innate immunity neonates protein fingerprinting colonization lipids 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Copyright information

© Birkhäuser Verlag, Basel 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Tollin
    • 1
  • G. Bergsson
    • 1
  • Y. Kai-Larsen
    • 1
  • J. Lengqvist
    • 1
  • J. Sjövall
    • 1
  • W. Griffiths
    • 2
  • G. V. Skúladóttir
    • 3
    • 4
  • Á. Haraldsson
    • 3
    • 4
    • 5
  • H. Jörnvall
    • 1
  • G. H. Gudmundsson
    • 6
  • B. Agerberth
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Medical Biochemistry and BiophysicsKarolinska InstitutetStockholmSweden
  2. 2.Department of Pharmaceutical and Biological ChemistryUniversity of LondonLondonUnited Kingdom
  3. 3.Department of PhysiologyUniversity of IcelandReykjavikIceland
  4. 4.Faculty of MedicineUniversity of IcelandReykjavikIceland
  5. 5.Children’s Hospital, LandspitaliUniversity HospitalReykjavikIceland
  6. 6.Institute of BiologyUniversity of IcelandReykjavikIceland

Personalised recommendations