Myosin regulation in the migration of tumor cells and leukocytes within a three-dimensional collagen matrix
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The migration of cells is a complex regulatory process which results in the generation of motor forces through the reorganization of the cytoskeleton. Here we present a comparative study of the expression and involvement of myosin in the regulation of the physiological migration of leukocytes and the pathological migration of tumor cells. We show that the involvement of myosin in the migration is distinct in these two cell types. In leukocytes, the activity of non-muscle myosin II is essential for both the spontaneous (matrix-induced) migration and the migration induced by ligands to G protein-coupled receptors, i.e. chemokines and neurotransmitters. In contrast, spontaneous tumor cell migration is largely independent of non-muscle myosin II activity, whereas the norepinephrine-induced migration is completely inhibited by either direct inhibition of non-muscle myosin II or of the kinases phosphorylating the myosin light chain, namely ROCK or the calcium/calmodulin-dependent myosin light-chain kinase.
Key words.Cell migration leukocyte tumor cell signal transduction non-muscle myosin II myosin light chain
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