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Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences CMLS

, Volume 62, Issue 2, pp 143–158 | Cite as

Aluminium in Alzheimer’s disease: are we still at a crossroad?

  • Veer Bala Gupta
  • S. Anitha
  • M. L. Hegde
  • L. Zecca
  • R. M. Garruto
  • R. Ravid
  • S. K. Shankar
  • R. Stein
  • P. Shanmugavelu
  • K. S. Jagannatha Rao
Review

Abstract.

Aluminium, an environmentally abundant non-redox trivalent cation has long been implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). However, the definite mechanism of aluminium toxicity in AD is not known. Evidence suggests that trace metal homeostasis plays a crucial role in the normal functioning of the brain, and any disturbance in it can exacerbate events associated with AD. The present paper reviews the scientific literature linking aluminium with AD. The focus is on aluminium levels in brain, region-specific and subcellular distribution, its relation to neurofibrillary tangles, amyloid beta, and other metals. A detailed mechanism of the role of aluminium in oxidative stress and cell death is highlighted. The importance of complex speciation chemistry of aluminium in relation to biology has been emphasized. The debatable role of aluminium in AD and the cross-talk between aluminium and genetic susceptibility are also discussed. Finally, it is concluded based on extensive literature that the neurotoxic effects of aluminium are beyond any doubt, and aluminium as a factor in AD cannot be discarded. However, whether aluminium is a sole factor in AD and whether it is a factor in all AD cases still needs to be understood.

Key words.

Alzheimer’s disease neurofibrillary tangles amyloid beta aluminium oxidative stress cell death genetics 

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Copyright information

© Birkhäuser Verlag, Basel 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Veer Bala Gupta
    • 1
  • S. Anitha
    • 1
  • M. L. Hegde
    • 1
  • L. Zecca
    • 2
  • R. M. Garruto
    • 3
  • R. Ravid
    • 4
  • S. K. Shankar
    • 5
  • R. Stein
    • 6
  • P. Shanmugavelu
    • 7
  • K. S. Jagannatha Rao
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Biochemistry and NutritionCentral Food Technological Research InstituteMysoreIndia
  2. 2.Institute of Biomedical Technologies-CNRMilanoItaly
  3. 3.Departments of Anthropology and Biological SciencesState University of New York at BinghamtonBinghamtonUSA
  4. 4.The Netherlands Brain BankThe Netherlands
  5. 5.Department of NeuropathologyNational Institute of Mental Health and NeuroscienceBangaloreIndia
  6. 6.Department of Neurobiochemistry, George S. Wise Faculty of Life SciencesTel-Aviv UniversityRamat AvivIsrael
  7. 7.Department of Chemical EngineeringBhabha Atomic Research CentreMumbaiIndia

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