Human estrogen receptor-α: regulation by synthesis, modification and degradation
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This review aims to evaluate the impact that human estrogen receptor-α (ER-α) synthesis, modification and degradation has on estrogen-dependant physiological and pathological processes within the body. Estrogen signaling is transduced through estrogen receptors, which act as ligand-inducible transcription factors. The significance of different isoforms of ER-α that lack structural features of full-length ER-α are discussed. The influence of differential promoter usage on the amount and isoform of ER-α within individual cell types is also reviewed. Moreover, the potential role of phosphorylation, ubiquitination and acetylation in the function and dynamic turnover of ER-α is presented.
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