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Swiss Journal of Geosciences

, Volume 103, Issue 3, pp 363–374 | Cite as

Subglacial tunnel valleys in the Alpine foreland: an example from Bern, Switzerland

  • Mirjam Dürst StuckiEmail author
  • Regina Reber
  • Fritz Schlunegger
Article

Abstract

The morphology of the Alpine and adjacent landscapes is directly related to glacial erosion and associated sediment transport. Here we report the effects of glacio-hydrologic erosion on bedrock topography in the Swiss Plateau. Specifically, we identify the presence of subsurface valleys beneath the city of Bern and discuss their genesis. Stratigraphic investigations of more than 4,000 borehole data within a 430 km2-large area reveal the presence of a network of >200 m-deep and 1,000 m-wide valleys. They are flat floored with steep sided walls and are filled by Quaternary glacial deposits. The central valley beneath Bern is straight and oriented towards the NNW, with valley flanks more than 20° steep. The valley bottom has an irregular undulating profile along the thalweg, with differences between sills and hollows higher than 50–100 m over a reach of 4 km length. Approximately 500 m high bedrock highlands flank the valley network. The highlands are dissected by up to 80 m-deep and 500 m-broad hanging valleys that currently drain away from the axis of the main valley. We interpret the valleys beneath the city of Bern to be a tunnel valley network which originated from subglacial erosion by melt water. The highland valleys served as proglacial meltwater paths and are hanging with respect to the trunk system, indicating that these incipient highland systems as well as the main gorge beneath Bern formed by glacial melt water under pressure.

Keywords

Tunnel valleys Swiss Plateau Quaternary Unconsolidated sediments Subglacial meltwater erosion 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This paper greatly benefited from scientific discussions with Christian Isenschmid, Peter Jordan, and Kevin Norton. Helpful suggestions by Christian Schlüchter improved the science of this paper. Dirk Rieke-Zapp is acknowledged for support in data processing and handling. The Amt für Wasser und Abfall, Bau-, Verkehrs und Energiedirektion, Kanton Bern provided the drill hole data, logistic support and the 2 m LIDAR DEM. The project was supported by the Swiss National Science foundation (SNF, 20TO21-120525), and by the ESF TopoEurope project.

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© Swiss Geological Society 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mirjam Dürst Stucki
    • 1
    Email author
  • Regina Reber
    • 1
  • Fritz Schlunegger
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Geological Sciences, University of BernBernSwitzerland

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