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Inflammation Research

, Volume 68, Issue 2, pp 93–102 | Cite as

The role of osteopontin in kidney diseases

  • Beata KaletaEmail author
Review
  • 152 Downloads

Abstract

Background

Osteopontin (OPN) is a pleiotropic glycoprotein expressed in various cell types in animals and in humans, including bone, immune, smooth muscle, epithelial and endothelial cells. Moreover, OPN is found in kidneys (in the thick ascending limbs of the loop of Henle and in distal nephrons) and urine. The protein plays an important role in mineralization and bone resorption. In addition, OPN is involved in the regulation of immunity and inflammation, angiogenesis and apoptosis. It was demonstrated that OPN and some OPN gene polymorphic variants are associated with the pathogenesis and progression of multiple disorders, such as cancer, autoimmune, neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases. Moreover, recent studies suggested that OPN is associated with the pathogenesis of renal failure.

Methods

In this review, I briefly discussed the role of OPN and its gene polymorphisms in kidney physiology, as well as in various kidney diseases.

Findings and Conclusion

Most studies reported that OPN expression is elevated in urolithiasis, and also in acute and chronic kidney diseases, and in renal allograft dysfunction. Moreover, it was demonstrated that polymorphic variants of the OPN gene may be associated with renal failure. However, some reports suggested that OPN is essential for tubulogenesis, and that it inhibits calcium oxalate crystal formation and retention, nitric oxide synthesis, cell apoptosis and promotes cell regeneration.

Thus, further studies are required to fully understand the role of OPN in kidney physiology and pathology. Eventually, these studies may result in the identification of OPN as a valuable marker for renal dysfunction prognosis and treatment.

Keywords

Kidney Kidney disease Marker Osteopontin 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The author received no specific funding for this work.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The author declares that has no conflicts of interests.

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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Clinical Immunology, Transplantation InstituteMedical University of WarsawWarsawPoland

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