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Inflammation Research

, Volume 68, Issue 1, pp 25–38 | Cite as

A comprehensive review on the treatment approaches of multiple sclerosis: currently and in the future

  • Mehrdad Gholamzad
  • Masoumeh Ebtekar
  • Mehdi Shafiee Ardestani
  • Maryam Azimi
  • Zeinab Mahmodi
  • Mohammad Javad Mousavi
  • Saeed Aslani
Review

Abstract

Background

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic and autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS), mainly characterized by inflammatory demyelination, which manifests as relapses and diffuse damage and brain volume loss, both accounting for neurodegeneration, and therefore, physical disability. MS typically affects young adults and is commonly diagnosed in the early years by acute relapses, which then followed through partial or complete remission period. The clinical course of MS is characterized as four major classifications, including relapsing–remitting (RRMS), primary progressive (PPMS), progressive relapsing (PRMS), and secondary progressive (SPMS).

Purpose

This review provides comprehensive overview of the current treatments and future innovative approaches in the treatment of MS.

Results

Currently, there is no definite cure for MS. The treatment of MS has mainly been based on the prescription of immunosuppressive and immune-modulating agents. However, a number of disease-modifying treatments (DMTs) have been designed that reduce the attack rate and delay progression and mainly target inflammation settings in these patients. Although remarkable advancements have occurred in the therapy of MS, the rate of progressive disability and early mortality is still worrisome. Recently, a monoclonal antibody (ocrelizumab) was demonstrated to be beneficial in a clinical trial of primary progressive MS. Furthermore, novel treatment strategies concentrating on the remyelination or neuroprotection are under evaluation.

Conclusions

In spite of prosperous experiences in MS therapy, the future research, hopefully, will bring substantial improvements in the understanding and approaches of MS therapy.

Keywords

Multiple sclerosis Central nervous system Disease-modifying treatments 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We are thankful of the Department of Microbiology and Immunology facilities at Islamic Azad University-Tehran Medical Branch.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mehrdad Gholamzad
    • 1
  • Masoumeh Ebtekar
    • 2
  • Mehdi Shafiee Ardestani
    • 3
  • Maryam Azimi
    • 4
  • Zeinab Mahmodi
    • 1
  • Mohammad Javad Mousavi
    • 4
    • 5
    • 6
  • Saeed Aslani
    • 4
    • 6
  1. 1.Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of MedicineTehran Medical Sciences, Islamic Azad UniversityTehranIran
  2. 2.Department of Immunology, Faculty of Medical SciencesTarbiat Modares UniversityTehranIran
  3. 3.Department of Radiopharmacy, Faculty of PharmacyTehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  4. 4.Department of Immunology, School of MedicineTehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  5. 5.Department of Hematology, Faculty of Allied MedicineBushehr University of Medical SciencesBushehrIran
  6. 6.Rheumatology Research CenterTehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran

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