Inflammation Research

, Volume 66, Issue 6, pp 477–486 | Cite as

HCV-induced regulatory alterations of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and IFN-ϒ operative, leading liver en-route to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis

  • Rabia Nawaz
  • Sadia Zahid
  • Muhammad Idrees
  • Shazia Rafique
  • Muhammad Shahid
  • Ammara Ahad
  • Iram Amin
  • Iqra Almas
  • Samia AfzalEmail author


Over the course of time, Hepatitis C has become a universal health menace. Its deleterious effects on human liver encompass a lot of physiological, genetic as well as epigenetic alterations. Fatty liver (Hepatic steatosis) is an inflammation having multifactorial ancestries; one of them is HCV (steatohepatitis). HCV boosts several cellular pathways involving up-regulation of a number of cytokines. Current study reviews the regulation of some selective key cytokines during HCV infection, to help generate an improved understanding of their role. These cytokines, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and IFN-ϒ, are inflammatory markers of the body. These particular markers along with others help hepatocytes against viral infestation. However, recently, their association has been found in degradation of liver on the trail heading to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Consequently, the disturbance in their equilibrium has been repeatedly reported during HCV infection. Quite a number of findings are affirming their up-regulation. Although these cell markers are stimulated by hepatocytes as their standard protection mechanism, but modern studies have testified the paradoxical nature of this defense line. Nevertheless, direct molecular or epigenetic research is needed to question the actual molecular progressions and directions commanding liver to steatosis, cirrhosis, or eventually HCC (Hepatocellular Carcinoma).


Hepatitis C virus (HCV) Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) Interleukins (IL) Interferon (IFN) Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) 


Author contributions

The work is a product of the intellectual environment of the whole team. Both RN and SZ have contributed equally to the exploration of data, its compilation, acquisition, and writing of the manuscript. AA has helped in data compilation and manuscript writing. MS and IA have helped in acquisition of the data of the manuscript. MI, SR, and SA have critically gone through the whole work.

Compliance with ethical standards


No funding was obtained for this study.

Conflict of interest

Authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rabia Nawaz
    • 1
  • Sadia Zahid
    • 1
  • Muhammad Idrees
    • 2
  • Shazia Rafique
    • 1
  • Muhammad Shahid
    • 1
  • Ammara Ahad
    • 1
  • Iram Amin
    • 1
  • Iqra Almas
    • 1
  • Samia Afzal
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.National Center of Excellence in Molecular BiologyUniversity of the PunjabLahorePakistan
  2. 2.Hazara University, Khyber PakhtunkhawaDhodialPakistan

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