TLR1 expression in mouse brain was increased in a KA-induced seizure model
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Toll-like receptors (TLRs) that mediate inflammatory responses play an important role in epilepsy; however, whether TLR1 is also involved in epileptogenesis remains unclear. Thus, in this study, we investigated the extent and pattern of TLR1 expression in epileptic tissues.
One-hundred and thirty-two mice were intra-cerebroventricularly injected with PBS or kainic acid (KA) and were examined at 1, 3, 8 and 24 h. The expression pattern and distribution of TLR1 were examined by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry staining.
The mRNA and protein levels of TLR1 were significantly upregulated in the hippocampus and temporal cortex of epileptic mice compared with those of controls. TLR1 expression was increased as early as 1 h following KA treatment and peaked at 8 and 24 h. Immunohistochemistry staining demonstrated that TLR1 was distributed in the CA1-3, dentate gyrus and hilus regions of the hippocampus and different cortical regions. Immunofluorescent staining further revealed that TLR1 was primarily expressed in the neurons, microglia, and astrocytes of epileptogenic tissue.
These results demonstrate that cortical and hippocampal sub-regional expression of TLR1 is altered during epileptogenesis in a time- and location-specific manner, suggesting a close association with the process of epilepsy.
KeywordsToll-like receptors TLR1 Status epilepticus Temporal lobe epilepsy
This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 81070953, 81071043, 81371424, and 81371430).
Conflict of interest
None of the authors have any conflicts of interest to disclose. We also confirm that we have read the Journal’s position on issues related to ethical publication and affirm that this report is consistent with those guidelines.
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