Anti-inflammatory effects of chlorogenic acid in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells
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Objectives and design
Chlorogenic acid, which belongs to the polyphenols, is an anti-oxidant and anti-obesity agent. In this study, we investigated the role of chlorogenic acid in inflammation.
Materials and methods
Anti-inflammatory effects of chlorogenic acid were examined in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated murine RAW 264.7 macrophages and BV2 microglial cells. We observed the level of various inflammation markers such as nitric oxide (NO), inducible NO synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 (CXCL1) under LPS treatment with or without chlorogenic acid. To clarify the specific effect of chlorogenic acid, we evaluated the adhesion activity of macrophages and ninjurin1 (Ninj1) expression level in macrophages. Finally, we confirmed the activation of the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling pathway, which is one of the most important transcription factors in the inflammatory process.
Chlorogenic acid significantly inhibited not only NO production but also the expression of COX-2 and iNOS, without any cytotoxicity. Chlorogenic acid also attenuated pro-inflammatory cytokines (including IL-1β and TNF-α) and other inflammation-related markers such as IL-6 in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, endotoxin-induced adhesion of macrophages and the expression level of ninjurin1 (Ninj1) were decreased by chlorogenic acid. Finally, chlorogenic acid inhibited the nuclear translocation of NF-κB.
Chlorogenic acid may be beneficial for the prevention and treatment of anti-inflammatory diseases.
KeywordsChlorogenic acid Nitric oxide Cytokines Ninjurin1 Inflammation
This work was supported by a National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (MEST) through the Global Research Laboratory Program (2011-0021874), the World Class University Program (R31-2008-000-10103-0), and the Global Core Research Center (GCRC) Program (2012-0001187).
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