Inflammation Research

, Volume 61, Issue 5, pp 401–409 | Cite as

Immune regulation of procalcitonin: a biomarker and mediator of infection

  • G. N. Matwiyoff
  • J. D. Prahl
  • R. J. Miller
  • J. J. Carmichael
  • D. E. Amundson
  • G. Seda
  • M. DaheshiaEmail author


Procalcitonin (PCT) has recently emerged as a powerful biomarker for an early and accurate diagnosis of bacterial infection. Here we summarize our current understanding of the expression pathways of PCT, its potential cellular sources including immune cells, and factors inducing its secretion. Also addressed is the significance of increased blood PCT concentration, which may allow this molecule not only to act as a clinical biomarker but also as an active participant in the development and progression of infectious processes. Experimental approaches to delineate a better understanding of PCT functions, molecular pathways that modulate its expression and therapeutic opportunities to curtail its biological actions are discussed, as well.


Procalcitonin Biomarker Inflammation Regulation Infection 


Conflict of interest



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Copyright information

© Springer Basel AG 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. N. Matwiyoff
    • 1
  • J. D. Prahl
    • 1
  • R. J. Miller
    • 1
  • J. J. Carmichael
    • 1
  • D. E. Amundson
    • 2
  • G. Seda
    • 1
  • M. Daheshia
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Pulmonary MedicineNaval Medical Center San DiegoSan DiegoUSA
  2. 2.Department of Critical CareScripps Memorial HospitalEncinitasUSA

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