Theaflavin-3, 3′-Digallate Attenuates Rheumatoid Inflammation in Mice Through the Nuclear Factor-κB and MAPK Pathways

  • Wenshu LiuEmail author
  • Jingying Li
Original Article


Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a common autoimmune disease which impacts a large number of patients worldwide, and new drugs are required for lower the disease burden. Theaflavin-3, 3′-digallate (TFDG) is polyphenol exhibiting inhibition on inflammatory factors. This study aimed to explore the attenuation of TFDG on RA. The collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) mouse model was established and administered with TFDG. The arthritis score and incidence was recorded to assess the amelioration of TFDG on arthritis. Histopathological change of the mouse joint tissues was evaluated by haemotoxylin and eosin staining. The expression of pro-inflammatory mediators including interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and IL-6 was quantified by ELISA. The activation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways in the synovium were determined by Western blotting. In comparison with the control, administration of TFDG significantly reduced arthritis score and incidence in the CIA mouse model. TFDG significantly suppressed the expression of IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-6, as well as the levels of MMP-1, MMP-2, and MMP-3 in the synovium. TFDG also showed remarkable inhibition on the activation of NF-κB and the phosphorylation of P38, JNK2, and ERK. This study puts up evidence that TFDG exerts protection on RA via inhibiting the activation of NF-κB- and MAPK-signaling pathways.


Rheumatoid arthritis Theaflavin-3 3′-digallate Collagen-induced arthritis model Nuclear factor-kappa B MAPK pathway 



Not applicable.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Research Involving Human Participants

All applicable international, national, and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed.

Informed Consent

Not applicable.


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Copyright information

© L. Hirszfeld Institute of Immunology and Experimental Therapy, Wroclaw, Poland 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Rheumatic ImmunologyDaqing Oilfield General HospitalDaqingChina

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