Complement in Cancer and Cancer Immunotherapy
Recently, there has been an increase of interest in the use of biological or immune-based therapies for patients with malignancies. This has been informed by the deeper understanding of the crosstalk between the host immune system and malignant tumours, as well as the potential advantages of immunotherapy—high specificity and less toxicity compared to standard approaches. The particular emphasis of this article is on the role of the complement system in tumour growth and antibody-based cancer immunotherapy. The functional consequences from overexpression of complement regulators by tumours and the development of strategies for overcoming this are discussed in detail. This review discusses these issues with a view to inspiring the development of new agents that could be useful for the treatment of cancer.
KeywordsImmunotherapy Cancer Complement Complement regulators Complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) Antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC)
- Bjørge L, Jensen TS, Ulvestad E et al (1995) The influence of tumour necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1 beta and interferon-gamma on the expression and function of the complement regulatory protein CD59 on the human colonic adenocarcinoma cell line HT29. Scand J Immunol 41:350–356PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Blom A, Villoutreix B, Dahlbäck B (2004b) Functions of human complement inhibitor C4b-binding protein in relation to its structure. Arch Immunol Ther Exp 52:83–95Google Scholar
- Meri S, Vakeva A, Laari T et al (1991) Soluble forms of CD59-antigen: distribution in body fluids and functional activity. Comp Inflam 8:193Google Scholar
- Tediose T, Kolev M, Sivasankar B et al (2010) Interplay between REST and nucleolin transcription factors: a key mechanism in the overexpression of genes upon increased phosphorylation. Nucleic Acids Res 38:2799–2812Google Scholar
- Treon SP, Mitsiades C, Mitsiades N et al (2001) Tumor cell expression of CD59 is associated with resistance to CD20 serotherapy in patients with B-cell malignancies. J Immunother 24:263–271Google Scholar