γδ T cell Receptor Ligands and Modes of Antigen Recognition

REVIEW

Abstract

T lymphocytes expressing the γδ-type of T cell receptors (TCRs) for antigens contribute to all aspects of immune responses, including defenses against viruses, bacteria, parasites and tumors, allergy and autoimmunity. Multiple subsets have been individualized in humans as well as in mice and they appear to recognize in a TCR-dependent manner antigens as diverse as small non-peptidic molecules, soluble or membrane-anchored polypeptides and molecules related to MHC antigens on cell surfaces, implying diverse modes of antigen recognition. We review here the γδ TCR ligands which have been identified along the years and their characteristics, with emphasis on a few systems which have been extensively studied such as human γδ T cells responding to phosphoantigens or murine γδ T cells activated by allogeneic MHC antigens. We discuss a speculative model of antigen recognition involving simultaneous TCR recognition of MHC-like and non-MHC ligands which could fit with most available data and shares many similarities with the classical model of MHC-restricted antigen recognition for peptides or lipids by T cells subsets with αβ-type TCRs.

Keywords

Gamma delta lymphocytes T cell receptor Innate immunity Antigen recognition Major histocompatibility complex 

Abbreviations

AA

Alkylamin

ABP

Aminobisphosphonate

APC

Antigen-presenting cell

apoA-I

Apolipoprotein A-I

ApppI

Triphosphoric acid 1-adenosin-5′-yl ester 3- (3-methylbut-3-enyl) ester

β2m

β2-Microglobulin

BTN

Butyrophilin family

CDR

Complementarity determining region of the TCR

CMV

Cytomegalovirus

DMAPP

Dimethylallyl pyrophosphate

ESAT-6

Early secreted antigenic target protein 6

HMBPP

(E)-1-Hydroxy-2-methylbut-2-enyl 4-diphosphate

HMGR

3-Hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase

HSP

Heat shock protein

HSV

Herpes simplex virus

IEL

Intraepithelial lymphocytes

IF1

Inhibitor of F1-ATPase

F1-ATPase

F1 adenosine triphosphatase

FPP

Farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase

IPP

Isopentenyl pyrophosphate

MAIT

Mucosal-associated invariant T cells

MEP

2-C-methyl-d-erythritol-4-phosphate

MICA/B

MHC class-I-related chain A/B

NK

Natural killer

NKR

NK receptor

PPD

Partially purified tuberculin derivative

SMX

Sulfamethoxazole

TAP

Transporter associated with antigen processing

TCR

T cell receptor

TIL

Tumor infiltrating lymphocyte

TLR

Toll-like receptor

TT

Tetanus toxoid

ULBP

Unique long 16 (UL16)-binding protein

Copyright information

© L. Hirszfeld Institute of Immunology and Experimental Therapy, Wroclaw, Poland 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Inserm, U1043; CNRS, U5282; Université de Toulouse, UPSCentre de Physiopathologie de Toulouse Purpan (CPTP)ToulouseFrance

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